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A) What are the challenges to democracy?

  • Foundational Challenge => Foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy and then making the democratic government. This involves bringing down the existing no democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government & establishing a sovereign and functional state.
  • Challenge of expansion=> This involves applying the basic principle of democracy equally to all regions, different social groups & various institution. Most countries like India & other democracies like the US face this problem.
  • Deepening of democracy=> This involves the strengthening of the institution & practices of democracy. Rich & powerful people should be kept away from taking government decision.


A) What is meant by political or democratic reforms?

  • The suggestion & proposals about overcoming various challenges to democracy are called political reforms.

B) The ways & means of political reforms in India

  • Carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices. Democratic reforms are carried out mainly by political activist’s parties & politically conscious citizens.
  • Any legal change must carefully look at what result it will have on politics law that seeks to ban anything are not very successful in politics. Law that gives political actors incentives to do good things has more chances of working. The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reform. The right to information act is a good example of a law that empowers people to find out what is happening in government and act as watchdogs of democracy.
  • Democracy reforms are to be brought about principally through political practices.
  • Any proposal for political reform should think not only about what is good but also about who will implement it and how.


A) A necessary feature for democracy.

  • Rulers elected by people must take all the major decisions.
  • Elections must offer a choice to change rules.
  • The choice must be given to all citizens equally.
  • The government must rule by the Constitution and citizens rights.

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