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Chapter 5 Nature Vegetation & Wildlife Notes Class 9th Social Science Geography

  • 47000- plants species are found in India. India stands the 10th place in the world and 4th in Asia.
  • 15000 species of flowering plants.
  • India has many non-flowering plants like firm, fungi etc.
  • 90000 species of animals.
  • A variety of fish are also found in water.

Natural Vegetation

  • It refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by a human for a long time, also known as a virgin vegetation.

So, cultivated crop, fruits and orchards do not come under Natural Vegetation.

Endemic species- Purely Indian

Exotic Species – Come outside from India.

Flora- refers to plant life.

Fauna – refers to animal life.

Factors that help in the growth of flora and fauna.

  • Relief Factors

Land – Land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly. The nature of the land influences the types of vegetation.

Soil – Different types of soils provide the basis for different types of vegetation.

  • Climatic factors

Temperature – The fall in the temperature affects the types of vegetation and its growth.

Photoperiod (Sunlight) – Due to longer duration of sunlight, trees grows faster in Summer.

Precipitation – Areas of heavy rainfall have a dense forest in comparison with low rainfall.

 Importance of Forest

  • Forests are renewable resources and enhance the quality of the environment.
  • They modify local climate, control soil erosion and regulate stream flow.
  • They support a variety of industries, provide a livelihood for many communities.
  • It controls wind force and temperature and causes rainfall.
  • It provides humus to the soil and shelter to wildlife.

The factors that cause the decline of forests

  • The growing demand for cultivated land.
  • Development of industries.
  • Mining
  • Urbanisation
  • Gazing of pastures.


  • All the plants and animals in an area are interrelated and interdependent to each other in their physical environment.
  • Humans are also the part of eco-system.

Types of Vegetation

  • Tropical Evergreen Forests (heavy rainfall areas)
  • Tropical Deciduous Forests (Rainfall b/w 200-70)
  • Tropical thorn forests and shrubs (less than 70 cm)
  • Montane Forests (Higher and decrease temperature areas)
  • Mangrove Forests (Coastal Reign)

Tropical Evergreen Forests

  • These forests are found in the heavy rainfall areas, E.G. Western Ghats, Assam etc.
  • The trees are very tall up to 60 m height.
  • All kinds of vegetation i.c. tress, shrubs, and creepers are grown here giving multi layered structures.
  • There is no definite time for the trees to shed their leaves. So these forests appear green through out the year.
  • E Body, Mahogany, rosewood etc. are the important trees are found.
  • Elephant, Monkeys, Lemur etc. are the important animals.

Tropical Deciduous Forests

  • These are the widespread forests in India.
  • They are found in the areas receiving rainfall between 200-700 cm.
  • Trees shed their leaves during the dry season.
  • On the basis of the availability of water. These are divided into moist and dry deciduous forests.

Moist Deciduous Forests

  • They are found in the areas receiving rainfall between 200-100 cm. Eg- Jharkhand, west Orissa.
  • Teak bamboo sake etc. are the important trees.

Dry Deciduous Forests

  • They are found in the areas receiving rainfall b/w 100-70 cm eg- Bihar and U.P.
  • Teak, Sal, Peepel etc. the important trees.

The Thorn Forests and Shrubs

  • These are the forest found in the areas receives less than 70 cm rainfall. Eg- Parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan.
  • Acacias, palms cacti etc are the important plan species.
  • Trees are scattered and have long roots to get moisture.
  • The stems are succulent (sponge) to conserve water.
  • The leaves are thick and small to minimize evaporation.
  • Rat, mice, rabbits and camels etc are the important animals.

Montane Forests

In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature affects the growth of vegetation.

  • Wet Temperate Forests- They are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 m eg. Oaks, chestnut.
  • Temperate Forests- They are found at the height of 1500-3000 m eg. pine, silver fir
  • Temperate Grasslands-  They are found in the higher elevation (height).
  • Alpine Vegetation- Found at the height of more than 3600 m. eg. Jumpers, pine.
  • The trees get (stunted) at the snow line.
  • Alpine grasslands are used by nomadic tribes like Gujjars and Bakarwals.
  • Tundra Vegetation- Lichens mosses are found at the higher altitude.

Mangrove Forests

  • They are found in the coastal areas influenced by tides(winds).
  • roots of the plant are submerged under water.
  • Sundari trees are found in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, which provides durable hard timber.
  • Palm, coconut etc are the important trees.
  • Royal Bengal tiger, turtles crocodiles are animals.

Wild Life

  • India is rich in wildlife.
  • There are 90000 animal species, 2000 species of birds and 2546 species of fish.
  • India also shares b/w 5 and 8 percent of worlds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
  • Elephants are found in the forests of Assam, Karnataka etc.
  • One horned rhinoceros, Indian Bison, Nilgri etc are important animals.
  • India is the only country that has both tigers and lions.
  • Lions-Gir forests in Gujarat.
  • In the rivers and lakes turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found.
  • Peacocks, ducks, cranes, pigeons etc are the colorful birds.

Importance of conservation of Wildlife

  • The animals provide us drought power, transportation, meats, and eggs.
  • The fish provide nutritive food.
  • Insects help in pollination of crops.
  • Every species has a role to play in the ecosystem.

How are human beings responsible for balancing the ecosystem?

  • Hunting by greedy hunters.
  • Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste.
  • Acid deposits.
  • Reckless cutting of the forests.

What are the steps taken by the Government to protect flora and fauna?

  • 14 biosphere reserves have been set up
  • Financial and technical assistance is provided too many botanical gardens since 1992.
  • Project Tiger, project Rhino etc have been introduced.
  • 89 National parks, 490 wildlife sanctuaries, and zoological gardens are set up.

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