- 47000- plants species are found in India. India stands the 10th place in the world and 4th in Asia.
- 15000 species of flowering plants.
- India has many non-flowering plants like firm, fungi etc.
- 90000 species of animals.
- A variety of fish are also found in water.
- It refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by a human for a long time, also known as a virgin vegetation.
So, cultivated crop, fruits and orchards do not come under Natural Vegetation.
Endemic species- Purely Indian
Exotic Species – Come outside from India.
Flora- refers to plant life.
Fauna – refers to animal life.
Factors that help in the growth of flora and fauna.
- Relief Factors
Land – Land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly. The nature of the land influences the types of vegetation.
Soil – Different types of soils provide the basis for different types of vegetation.
- Climatic factors
Temperature – The fall in the temperature affects the types of vegetation and its growth.
Photoperiod (Sunlight) – Due to longer duration of sunlight, trees grows faster in Summer.
Precipitation – Areas of heavy rainfall have a dense forest in comparison with low rainfall.
Importance of Forest
- Forests are renewable resources and enhance the quality of the environment.
- They modify local climate, control soil erosion and regulate stream flow.
- They support a variety of industries, provide a livelihood for many communities.
- It controls wind force and temperature and causes rainfall.
- It provides humus to the soil and shelter to wildlife.
The factors that cause the decline of forests
- The growing demand for cultivated land.
- Development of industries.
- Gazing of pastures.
- All the plants and animals in an area are interrelated and interdependent to each other in their physical environment.
- Humans are also the part of eco-system.
Types of Vegetation
- Tropical Evergreen Forests (heavy rainfall areas)
- Tropical Deciduous Forests (Rainfall b/w 200-70)
- Tropical thorn forests and shrubs (less than 70 cm)
- Montane Forests (Higher and decrease temperature areas)
- Mangrove Forests (Coastal Reign)
Tropical Evergreen Forests
- These forests are found in the heavy rainfall areas, E.G. Western Ghats, Assam etc.
- The trees are very tall up to 60 m height.
- All kinds of vegetation i.c. tress, shrubs, and creepers are grown here giving multi layered structures.
- There is no definite time for the trees to shed their leaves. So these forests appear green through out the year.
- E Body, Mahogany, rosewood etc. are the important trees are found.
- Elephant, Monkeys, Lemur etc. are the important animals.
Tropical Deciduous Forests
- These are the widespread forests in India.
- They are found in the areas receiving rainfall between 200-700 cm.
- Trees shed their leaves during the dry season.
- On the basis of the availability of water. These are divided into moist and dry deciduous forests.
Moist Deciduous Forests
- They are found in the areas receiving rainfall between 200-100 cm. Eg- Jharkhand, west Orissa.
- Teak bamboo sake etc. are the important trees.
Dry Deciduous Forests
- They are found in the areas receiving rainfall b/w 100-70 cm eg- Bihar and U.P.
- Teak, Sal, Peepel etc. the important trees.
The Thorn Forests and Shrubs
- These are the forest found in the areas receives less than 70 cm rainfall. Eg- Parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan.
- Acacias, palms cacti etc are the important plan species.
- Trees are scattered and have long roots to get moisture.
- The stems are succulent (sponge) to conserve water.
- The leaves are thick and small to minimize evaporation.
- Rat, mice, rabbits and camels etc are the important animals.
In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature affects the growth of vegetation.
- Wet Temperate Forests- They are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 m eg. Oaks, chestnut.
- Temperate Forests- They are found at the height of 1500-3000 m eg. pine, silver fir
- Temperate Grasslands- They are found in the higher elevation (height).
- Alpine Vegetation- Found at the height of more than 3600 m. eg. Jumpers, pine.
- The trees get (stunted) at the snow line.
- Alpine grasslands are used by nomadic tribes like Gujjars and Bakarwals.
- Tundra Vegetation- Lichens mosses are found at the higher altitude.
- They are found in the coastal areas influenced by tides(winds).
- roots of the plant are submerged under water.
- Sundari trees are found in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, which provides durable hard timber.
- Palm, coconut etc are the important trees.
- Royal Bengal tiger, turtles crocodiles are animals.
- India is rich in wildlife.
- There are 90000 animal species, 2000 species of birds and 2546 species of fish.
- India also shares b/w 5 and 8 percent of worlds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
- Elephants are found in the forests of Assam, Karnataka etc.
- One horned rhinoceros, Indian Bison, Nilgri etc are important animals.
- India is the only country that has both tigers and lions.
- Lions-Gir forests in Gujarat.
- In the rivers and lakes turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found.
- Peacocks, ducks, cranes, pigeons etc are the colorful birds.
Importance of conservation of Wildlife
- The animals provide us drought power, transportation, meats, and eggs.
- The fish provide nutritive food.
- Insects help in pollination of crops.
- Every species has a role to play in the ecosystem.
How are human beings responsible for balancing the ecosystem?
- Hunting by greedy hunters.
- Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste.
- Acid deposits.
- Reckless cutting of the forests.
What are the steps taken by the Government to protect flora and fauna?
- 14 biosphere reserves have been set up
- Financial and technical assistance is provided too many botanical gardens since 1992.
- Project Tiger, project Rhino etc have been introduced.
- 89 National parks, 490 wildlife sanctuaries, and zoological gardens are set up.