- Population size and distribution
- Density of Population
- Reason for differences in density of population.
- Population Growth
- Processes of population change
- Age Composition
- Sex Ratio
- Occupational Structure
- National Population Policy (NPP) 2000
MAJOR QUESTIONS ABOUT THE POPULATION OF A COUNTRY.
(a) Population size and distribution- How many people are there and where are they located?
- Population growth and change. How has the population grown and changed over time?
- Characteristics of the population- What are their age, sex, literacy levels, occupation structure and health condition.
Population size and distribution
- According to the census of 2001, India has the population of 1028 million (102 crores 8 lakh)
- They are unevenly distributed over the vast area of 3.28 million sq. km.
- The most populous state with 166 million people in U.P.
- A least populous state is Sikkim with 0.5 million and Lakshadweep has only 60,000 population.
- About half of India’s population lives just in 5 states. They are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andra Pradesh.
Density of Population
- The number of person per unit area [1 sq. km]
- According to 2001 census, the average calamity of the population is 324 person/ sq. km. The highest density of population is in West Bengal with 904/ sq. km. Least density of population is in Arunachal Pradesh with 13/ Sq. km.
Reason for differences in density of population.
- Rugged terrain and unfavorable climatic conditions are responsible for the sparse population in the states like Jammu and Kashmir and Rajasthan etc.
- Assam and most of the peninsular state have moderate population density, due to hilly, rocky nature, low rainfall and less fertile soil.
- Northern Plains and Kerala have a high density of population due to flat plains with fertile soil and abundant rainfall.
It refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country during a specific period of time. It can be expressed in two ways:-
- Absolute number- It can be obtained by subtracting the earlier population from the latest population.
- Percentage change- It is studied that in percent per annum.
Processes of population change
There are 3 processes of population change
- Birth rate- The numbers of live births per 1000 persons in a year.
- Death rate- The number of deaths per 1000 persons in a year.
- Migration- The movement of the people across regions be territories. Migration is of two types.
- Internal Migration- The movement of the people within the country.
- International Migration- The movement of the people b/w the countries.
‘Push’ and ‘Pull’ factors of Migration
Push Factors- Most of the migrations are from rural to urban areas due to poverty and unemployed in rural areas.
Pull Factor- Increase employment opportunities and better living conditions in urban areas.
It refers to the number of people in different age group.
The population is grouped into 3 categories.
- Children (below 15 years)- They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, shelter, clothing etc.
- Working age (15-59 years)- They are economically productive and biologically reproductive.
- Aged (above 59 years)- They can be economically productive through retired.
- It refers to the numbers of females per 1000 males in the population.
- The sex ratio has always been unfavorable for females in India.
A person aged 7 years and above who can read and write with understanding in any language.
The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation-
Occupation is classified as primary secondary and tertiary.
(a) Primary occupation includes agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing etc.
(b) Secondary occupation includes manufacturing industry building and construction work.
(c) Tertiary occupation includes transport, trade communications, banking etc.
National Population Policy (NPP) 2000
In 2000, government of India invited National Population Policy.
- Imparting free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age.
- Reducing infant mortality rate.
- Achieving universal immunization of children.
- Promoting delayed marriage for girls.
- Creating awareness among the adolescents about sexually transmitted diseases (STD), need of food supplements etc.