Concept’s of What is Constitutional Design Class 9th Social Science Civics

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Democratic Constitution in South Africa

  •  Nelson Mandela, the South African leader of African National Congress, fought a long battle against Apartheid.
  • Imprisoned for 28 years (1964–1992) emerged as the First President of the Republic of South Africa.
  • People struggled against the horrible discrimination practiced against them by the white
    minority rulers.
  • Apartheid finally defeated in 1994 and a new constitution made in 1996.
  • Remarkable constitution, forgot past sufferings, sought co-operation of all the races which make S. Africa based on equality, democratic values and social justice.


Do We Need a Constitution?

  • Yes. A constitution has written laws accepted by people living together in a country.
  • It generates trust and co-ordination.
  • It specifies how a government should be constituted.
  • It lays down limits on the powers of the government.
  • It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.

Making of the Indian Constitution

  • The process began during the national struggle for freedom.
  • First draft 1928, then 1931. Motilal Nehru and 8 leaders demanded in the draft: universal adult franchise, social justice, right to freedom and liberty.
  • Participation in Provincial Legislatures helped Indians in framing their constitution.
  • Leaders inspired by French Revolution, British parliamentary system and the Bill of Rights of the US.
  • They also learnt what the British were denying Indian citizens. 

The Constituent Assembly

  • Elections to the Constituent Assembly held in July 1946.
  •  Dr. B.R. Ambedkar appointed the chairman of the drafting committee.
  • Constitution adopted on 26 November 1949, and enacted on 26 January 1950, when India became a republic.
  • The Constitution reflects the best minds of the country. Its members represented mini-India.
    Every law was debated clause by clause and a consensus arrived at.
  • It is the longest written constitution.
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