Important Terms Of The Rise Of Nationalism in Europe History Class 10th

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SECTION A — THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE IDEA OF A NATION, AND
MAKING OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

  1. The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.
  2. The French Revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
  3. The revolutionary ideas spread in Europe after the outbreak of revolutionary wars and the rule of Napoleon.
  4. In early nineteenth century Europe, national unity was allied to the ideology of Liberalism.
  5. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of Conservatism, which led to repression and drove people to oppose monarchical governments.
  6. Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian revolutionary, set up ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles (France) and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne (Switzerland).
  7. Mazzini was described as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’, by Metternich, the Austrian Chancellor, who hosted the Vienna Congress.

SECTION B — THE AGE OF REVOLUTION (1830–1848) AND
THE UNIFICATION OF GERMANY AND ITALY

  1. Liberalism and nationalism became associated with the revolution in many regions of Europe such as the Italian and German states, the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland.
  2. The first upheaval took place in France, in July 1830.
  3. The Greek War of Independence was another event which mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite in Europe.
  4. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art and poetry, stories, music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
  5. Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
  6. Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
  7. The 1830s saw a rise in prices, bad harvest, poverty in Europe. Besides the poor, unemployed and starving peasants, even educated middle classes, revolted.
  8. In 1848, an all-German National Assembly was voted for in Frankfurt.
  9. The issue of extending political rights to women became a controversial one.
  10. Conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, but could not restore the old order.
  11. After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution.
  12. In 1848, Germans tried to unite into a nation-state.
  13. Prussia took the lead under its Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in victory for Prussia and a unified Germany.
  14. In January 1871, Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor at a ceremony at Versailles.
  15. Italy was fragmented, before unification it was a part of the multinational Habsburg Empire in the north, centre under the Pope and the south under the Bourbon kings of Spain.
  16. Three Men – Giuseppe Mazzini, Chief Minister Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi played a leading role in unifying Italy during the 1830s.
  17. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the king of united Italy.
  18. In Britain, the formation of the nation state was not the result of a sudden upheaval but was the result of a long-drawn-out process.
  19. The Act of Union (1707) – united Scotland and England and “the United Kingdom of Great Britain” was formed.
  20. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. A new British nation was forged.

SECTION C — VISUALISING THE NATION :
NATIONALISM AND IMPERIALISM

  1. People and artists in the 18th and 19th centuries personified a nation.
  2. In France, Marianne became the allegory of the French nation, while Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
  3. By the 1870s nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment but became a narrow creed with limited ends.
  4. The major European powers, manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject peoples in Europe to further their own imperialist aims.
  5. People everywhere developed their own specific variety of nationalism.
  6. The idea that societies should be organized into nation-states came to be accepted as natural and universal.
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