LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (4 MARKS)
Q.1. Which are the countries with which India shares land boundaries? Write a short note about India’s position among its neighbours.
Ans. India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east.
India stands apart from the rest of Asia with the Himalayas acting as a natural barrier to the north and northwest and the Purvanchals in the northeast. Thus, the land boundary of India is protected by mountain ranges, giving India a safer location with respect to its neighbours. India occupies the most eminent position within the Indian subcontinent and has strong geographical and historical links with its neighbours. India shares strong bilateral relationships with its neighbours socially, culturally and economically. Social and cultural exchange with our neighbours has strengthened our position on account of our rich cultural heritage. Economically, we have good trade relations with our neighbours. Politically also, we share good relations with most of our neighbours. The SAARC endeavours to maintain good relations among the neighbouring countries in South Asia.
Q.2. Write a note on the location and size of India [Importnat]
Ans. India is a vast country. It is located in South Asia. From south to north India’s mainland extends between 8°4’N and 37°6’N latitudes. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30’N) passes roughly through the middle of the country.
From west to east India extends between 68°7’E and 97°25’E longitudes. It is located in the Eastern Hemisphere.
To the southeast of India’s mainland lie the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and to the southwest lie the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.
The landmass of India covers an area of 3.28 million square km. From the point of view of size it is the seventh largest country of the world. It accounts for 2.4 per cent of the total
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie to the southeast of Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal. The Lakshadweep Islands lie in the Arabian Sea to the southwest of India’s mainland, close to the Malabar coast of Kerala.The Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie to the southeast of Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal. The Lakshadweep Islands lie in the Arabian Sea to the southwest of India’s mainland, close to the Malabar coast of Kerala.
The Andaman and Nicobars are formed of the Great Andamans and the Little Andamans in the
north and Nicobar Islands in the south. They are groups of numerous big and small islands.
The southernmost point of the Indian Union is located in one of these Islands. These islands are of great strategic importance to India. They lie close to the equator and have equatorial climate. They lie along the trans-Indian Ocean route and close to the south and southeast Asia. Port Blair is the official headquarters of Andaman and Nicobar.
The Lakshadweep Islands are a group of small coral islands lying close to the southern section of the west coast of India. In 1973 the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive Islands were renamed as Lashadweep. It covers a small area of 32 sq. km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep. Both the group of islands are rich in flora and fauna and natural beauty, enhancing India’s geographical entity.
Q.6. How has India’s geographic location aided the nation?
Ans. India is a southward extension of the Asian Continent. It has a central location between the East and the West Asia. To the north of India lie the lofty mountain ranges of the Himalayas which serve as a natural barrier separating Indian subcontinent from the rest of Asia. The land routes through the mountain passes had served as channels for exchange of culture and commodities since ancient times. To its south the landmass tapers and the Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean providing opportunities for flourishing maritime trade. The trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the west and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India. India is able to establish close contacts with oil rich countries of West Asia and countries of Africa and Europe from its western coast via the Arabian Sea. The Suez Canal sea-route provides India the shortest route to industrial Europe and America. India has commercially favourable contacts with Southeast and East Asia and Australia from its eastern coast via the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean. Thickly populated countries of Southeast Asia and China lie close to India. This augments the development of trade and cultural relations. Thus, India’s geographical location has aided in the development and progress of the nation.
Q.7. The Tropic of Cancer passes half-way through the country. What does this imply?
Ans. The mainland of India extends between latitudes 8°4/N and 37°6/N. The Tropic of Cancer, 23°30/N, passes halfway through the country. This has its implications for the climate of India as well as influences the duration of day and night.
Places on either side of the Tropic of Cancer experience tropical climate. The tropical monsoon type of climate that India experiences is extreme on account of the Tropic of Cancer. Places further south of Indian Union away from the Tropic of Cancer have more equable climate being closer to equator. Places further north of the Tropic of Cancer have subtropical climate. The sun shines directly on the Tropic of Cancer on 21st June or Summer Solstice. Countries in the Northern Hemisphere including India experience summer during this part of the year. It is also associated with maximum heating of tropics during this period that influences advance of monsoons or rainy season.
Areas along the Tropic of Cancer have their longest day on 21st June. These areas have their shortest day on 22nd December or Winter Solstice when the sun rays are directly overhead the Tropic of Capricorn.