LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [4 MARKS]
Q.1. How did French territory undergo changes due to the Treaty of Vienna in 1815?
Ans. Representatives of European powers, i.e. Austria, Britain, Russia and Prussia, met at Vienna in 1815 after having defeated Napoleon. The Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich was the head of the Congress. Here the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 was drawn up to undo the changes after the Napoleonic wars. Thus the Bourbon dynasty, deposed during the French Revolution, was put back in power even as France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon. To prevent every future expansion of France, many states were set up on France’s boundaries. So the kingdom of Netherlands including Belgium came up in the north, while Genoa came together with Piedmont in the south. Prussia received some important new territories on its western frontiers. Austria gained control of northern Italy. The 39 states in the German Confederation as set up by Napoleon underwent no changes. In the east, Russia received a part of Poland and Prussia received a part of Saxony.
The objective was to restore the monarchies overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe.
Q.2. Discuss the lives of the aristocrats and the new middle class in 19th century France.
Ans. In the 19th century Europe, the landed aristocracy dominated all social and political spheres. They were united by a common lifestyle. They owned huge estates in the countryside and some had large town houses too. Their spoken language was French, both in high society and in diplomatic circles. Most of the aristocratic families were connected by marriage. The aristocrats formed a small group but held a lot of power.
Peasantry comprised the larger group of the population. To the west, most of the land was farmed by small owners and tenants. In Eastern and Central Europe, the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates cultivated by serfs. In the western and some part of Central Europe industrial production and trade was on the rise and with them towns grew and the commercial classes emerged. Their existence was based on the production for the market.
Industrialisation took birth in England in the 1850s but France and Germany experienced it only during the 19th century. This caused emergence of new social groups — working class and middle class. The latter comprised industrialists, businessmen and professionals. These groups were not many in Central and Eastern Europe. So it was the liberal, educated middle-class which encouraged national unity after aristocratic privileges were abolished.
Q.3. What views did the conservatives hold?
Ans. Napoleon was defeated in 1815 and soon European governments adopted the idea of conservatism. The conservatives held the belief that established, traditional institutions of state and society like monarchy, church, social hierarchies, property and family must be protected and preserved. They never proposed a pre-revolutionary period to return to but they knew that as Napoleon had carried out changes, modernisation would in fact contribute to a strong monarchy. They believed that it would strengthen power of the state and make it much more effective. For them it was a firm belief that aristocratic monarchies of Europe would gain much from a modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom.
Q.4. Friedrich List, Professor of Economics at the University of Tubingen in Germany, wrote in 1834.
“The aim of the Zollverein is to bind the Germans economically into a nation. It will strengthen the nation materially as much by protecting its interests externally as by stimulating its internal productivity. It ought to awaken and raise national sentiment through a fusion of individual and provincial interests. The German people have realised that a free economic system is the only means to engender national feeling.”
Read the statement by Professor List and discuss what political ends he hoped, would be achieved by economic measures.
Ans. Professor List was sure that economic measures could result in certain political ends :
(i) A national economy binds the nation together. For example, Zollverein abolished tariff barriers. It also reduced the currencies from thirty to two. This economic union was joined by most of the German states and brought them together and created a national feeling.
(ii) It also promoted internal productivity, for example, to help trade growth, a network of railways was needed for increased mobility. This also brought people together.
(iii) Economic measures like the Zollverein also protected nation’s external interests (the use of common currency and abolishing of tariffs).
This fusion of individual and provincial interests aroused national sentiments in people.
Q.5. The French philosopher Ernst Renan (1823-92) outlined his understanding of what a nation is in this way :
“A nation is the result of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion. A heroic past, great men, glory, that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity … Its existence is a daily plebiscite … A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitants. A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will. The existence of nations is a good thing, a necessity even. Their existence is a guarantee of
liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.”
(i) What, according to Renan, are the attributes of a nation?
(ii) Why does he think nations are important ?
(iii) How is his idea different from others? Do you agree with him?
Ans. (i) According to Renan, a nation must have people who have shared “a glorious past,” and have a desire, a will to perform deeds together for the glory of the country in the present and in the future also. There is unity, a solidarity. They belong to the nation and have to be consulted on any issue, they exercise their rights daily. A nation does not want to grab territories, it does not want to conquer any country or dominate it against the will of the people.
(ii) A nation is necessary because it guarantees freedom to every citizen. This liberty (individual) would be lost, if there was uniform law for everyone and only one ruler.
(iii) He differs from others as he does not believe that a nation speaks the same language, follows the same religion, belongs to the same race and occupies the same territory.
I agree with him. India is a nation made of different races, different religions, we speak different languages, follow different cultures. Yet, we have unity in diversity as we have a common past and a desire to live together.
Q.6. What is the significance of symbols given in this picture?
Ans. Each symbol has a meaning and a significance. (i) The broken chains represent freedom, freedom from slavery. (ii) The breast plate with eagle on it represents the German Empire and its strength (the eagle is a strong bird). (iii) The tricolour — black, red and gold — was the flag of liberal nationalists in 1848. It was banned by Dukes of the German states. A flag always unites people and arouses national feelings. (iv) The sword symbolises a readiness to fight. The German nation was ever ready to fight for its honour. (v) The crown of oak leaves stands for courage, bravery and heroism. (vi) The olive branch around the sword shows that Germans are as eager for peace as they are eager to fight. (vii) The rays of the rising sun symbolise the beginning of a new era as a united German nation.
Q.7. Read the two opinions about the role of women in societ
(a) What according to Carl Welcker is a woman’s function? Does he think women should be given equality and liberty.
(b) Louise Otto Peters asks a question in his article. What is the significance of his question? How does he define liberty?
Ans. (a) A woman, according to Carl Welcker, is weak, timid and needs protection of the strong, bold, free man. He confines the woman to the kitchen, home and children. He does not support equality and liberty for woman. A woman must remain subservient to a man.
(b) Louise Otto Peters is certainly a feminist. He wants to know whether men are prepared to fight for “freedom of the entire people, all human beings”?
His question is significant because though the men will unanimously answer “yes” but they are not ready to grant this freedom to women, who constitute half the population of the world.
For him Liberty is indivisible, it cannot be given to some and not to others. He certainly holds a totally different view from Carl Welcker, who is a male chauvinist!
Q.8. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
How was the formation of the nation-state the result of a long-drawn-out process in Britain? Explain. [Outside Delhi 2008]
Ans. In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process.
There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. All the ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it extended influence over other nations of the island.
The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members. The growth of a British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
Ireland suffered a similar fate. It was a country deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants. The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country. Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed.
PREVIOUS YEARS’ QUESTIONS
Q.1. Why was Balkans after 1871 the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe.
Explain giving four reasons. [Foreign 2008, 2011(T-2)]
Ans. • The Balkan region comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, and its inhabitants were broadly called Slavs.
• With a large area of Balkan region under the Ottoman Empire, the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the breaking up of the Ottoman Empire made the situation even more serious.
• The Ottoman Empire had not been able to become strong even after reforms and modern methods after an effort of nearly 91.00 years. Gradually, most of the European subject nationalities broke away from the Ottoman Empire’s control to declare themselves independent.
• The claim for independence and political rights by the Balkan people was based on nationality. They gave examples of history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers.
• Thus the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long lost independence.
• Soon various Slavic nationalities were struggling to define their identity and independence making Balkans region one having intense conflict.
• The internal rivalries and jealousies made the Balkan states distrust and fear each other.
• As the Balkans had become site for big power fights, the situation became even more serious. The fights were among the European powers who fought for trade and colonies and for naval and military powers.
• Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary wanted to gain control of the Balkan region causing many wars which culminated in the First World War.
Q.2. Explain any four provisions of Napoleon’s Civil Code of 1804. [Delhi-2008]
State any three provisions of the Civial Code of 1804. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. Napoleon incorporated revolutionary principles in the administrative field to make the whole system more rational and effective. His civil code of 1804 was known as Napoleonic Code.
(i) First, he did away with all the privileges based on birth. Everyone became equal before the law. He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial duties.
(ii) He secured the right to property.
(iii) Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen found a new-found freedom as guild restrictions were removed in towns also.
(iv) Uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, a common national currency facilitated the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Q.3. How was the Habsburg Empire a patchwork of many different regions and peoples in Europe? Explain. [Outside India-2008]
Ans. In the mid-eighteenth century Europe, there were no ‘nation-states’ as we know them today. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies, having people of diverse ethnic groups. The Habsburg Empire was one such example. It ruled over Austria-Hungary, a patchwork of many different regions and peoples. It included the Alpine regions — the Tayrol, Austria and Switzerland — as well as Bohemia, where the aristocracy was predominantly German-speaking. It also included Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. In Hungary, half the population spoke Magyar, while the other half spoke a variety of dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish. Besides these three dominant groups, there also lived within the territories a mass of subject peasant peoples — Bohemians, Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carinola, Croats to the south, the Roumans to the east in Transylvania. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.
Q.4. When did the first clear-cut expression of nationalism come in France? How did the French Revolution lead to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens? Explain any three measures taken by the French revolutionaries in this regard. [Outside Delhi-2008]
Ans. • The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came to France with the French Revolution of 1789.
• The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices which proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
(i) The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the royal standard.
(ii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed National Assembly.
(iii) A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all its citizens.
Q.5. How has French artist, Frederic Sorrieu, visualised in his first print, of the series of four prints, his dream of a world made up of ’democratic and social republics’? Explain.
Describe Frederic Sorrieu’s utopian vision of the world as depicted in his painting in 1848. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The French artist, Fredrick Sorrieu prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of the world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’.
His First Print showed people of Europe and America – men and women of all ages and social classes – marching in a long train, and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty as they pass by it. Liberty is of course personified as a woman, bearing the torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the charter of the Rights of Man in the other. (The artists of this time of French Revolution portrayed Liberty as a female figure.) On the earth, in the foreground of the image, lay the shattered remains of the symbols of Absolute institutions. Leading the procession, way past the statue of Liberty, are the United States and Switzerland which were at that time already nation states. In his print of Sorrieu; people of the world are grouped together as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume. France, distinguished by its tricolour flag, has just reached the statue, and she is followed by Germany with their black and gold flag. (Germany was not yet united, but in 1848, when this painting was made, it expressed the hopes of the nation.) Peoples of Austria, kingdoms of two Sicilis, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia follow in that order. From the heavens, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene. They have been used to symbolise the fraternity among the nations of the world.
Q.6. Explain any four measures introduced by French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the people of France. 
Ans. The French revolutionaries introduced various measures to create a sense of collective identity.
(i) The idea of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the idea of united community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution.
(ii) A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the old royal standard.
(iii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
(iv) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.
Q.7. Describe four stages of unification of Germany. [2010, 2011(T-2)]
Ans. (i) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848, tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state.
(ii) From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its chief minister (Chancellor) Otto von Bismarck, the architect of this process, carried it out, with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(iii) Three wars were fought over a span of seven years against Austria, Denmark and France, which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(iv) In January 1871, the Prussian King William I was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles. On 18 January, 1871, the new German empire headed by Kaiser Wilhelm of Prussia was proclaimed.
Q.8. How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of a nation in Europe ? Explain with four examples. [2009, 2011(T-2)]
Ans. The feeling of nationalism was strengthened, developed and given encouragement by art, music, literature, drama. These played a big role in it. Their contribution was equal to the heroic battles fought by heroes.
(i) The Romantics like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder believed that true German culture could be discovered only among the common people — das volk.
(ii) Language played a very important role in boosting nationalism. The Polish people opposed the Russian occupation and the ban on Polish language, by using it in the Churches for all religious ceremonies and for religious instruction. The Polish language became a weapon in the hands of the nationalists and no amount of Russian atrocities could stop them. Two Germans, Grimm Brothers, used stories and folktales written in German to promote the German spirit against the domination of the French. Grimm’s fairytales became instant classics.
(iii) Operas and music, like that of the Polish Karol Kurpinski, kept the national spirit alive.
(iv) Folk dances like the polonaise and mazurki became national symbols.
Q.9. Mention any two economic obstacles that the liberal nationalists wanted to overcome. In what way did the Zollverein customs union of 1834 try to overcome these shortcomings ? [2011(T-2)]
Ans. During the early nineteenth century, Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. In reference to economy this liberalism denotes freedom of market, less restrictions of state on the movement of goods and capitals. To get rid of these economic problems that was the main demand of the new emerged middle class.
Existence of countless small principalities, different currencies, number of customs barriers created obstacles to economic exchange and growth for the new commercial classes. To sort out that problem Prussia including with most of the German states formed a customs union or Zollverein in 1834.
The Zollverein abolished tariff barriers, reduced number of currencies, create network of railways for fast and heavy mobility. So a single solution for all these economic problems was known by the name of Zollverein.
Q.10. What is the significance of 1848 for France and the rest of Europe ? What did the liberals demand ? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. With many revolts like revolts of the poor, unemployed workers and starving peasants during 1848 in Europe, educated middle class of France also started a revolution for the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed. In other parts of Europe, men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification. They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation state on parliamentary principles — a constitution, freedom of press and freedom of association.
The issue of extending political rights to women was most controversial subject matter within the liberal movement in which large number of women had participated actively.
Q.11. How did the Greek War of Independence mobilise nationalist feeling among the educated elite across Europe ? Give four points. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. Greece was the part of Ottoman empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary
nationalism in Europe motivated the Greeks to start a struggle for independence which began in 1821. Reaction of the struggle inspired the educated elite class of Europe and filled them with nationalistic feeling. Greece got support from other Greeks also residing at different countries. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. One of the English poets Lord Byron organised fund and participated in the war. Finally, the day of joy came in 1832 and Greece recognised as an independent nation by the Treaty of Constantinople.
Q.12. “Till mid-eighteenth century there were no nation states in Europe.” Support the statement with four examples. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. During the mid-eighteenth century there were no nation states in Europe. Germany, Italy and Switzerland were ruled by different rulers with autonomous territories. Autocratic monarchies were there in eastern and central part of Europe. These areas were occupied by different peoples. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or common culture. They spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups, like the area of Austria -Hungary included the Alpine region the Tyrol. Sudetenland and Bohemia were dominated by German-speaking people. It also included the province of Lombardy and Venetia which had Italian speaking people. In Hungary, the half of the population spoke Magyar and the other half of the population spoke different dialects. In the part of Galicia the aristocratic class spoke Polish.
Besides these three dominant groups, a mass of subject peasant people like -Roumans to the east in Transylvania, Bohemians and Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carniola and the Croats to the south lived within the boundary. The only tie binding those different groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.
Q.13. What was the main objective of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 ? Mention any three important features of the treaty. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The main objective of treaty of Vienna was to nullify all the changes that had come into existence during Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty restore its power which had been deposed during the French Revolution. To prevent the expansion of France in future, a number of states were set up on the boundaries of France. The kingdom of Netherland including Belgium was set up in the north and Genoa including Piedmont established in the south. Prussia was given important new territories on the western frontier, while Austria was given control of northern Italy. The German confederation of 39 states which was set up by Napoleon was left untouched. Prussia was given to Russia. The main intention was behind that set up was to restore the monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe.
Q.14. Describe any four features of the landed aristocracy class of European continent.
Ans. European continent was dominated by the landed aristocratic class socially as well as politically. This landed aristocratic class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They had their own estates and town houses in the countryside. By playing the game of diplomacy in her society they spoke French language. The families of landed aristocratic class got married within their own class. The occupation of majority population was agriculture. Europe was divided into two major parts on the basis of occupation. The
western part was served by tenants and small owners of land or small landlords. While in eastern and central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estate which were cultivated by serfs.
Q.15. How was the Habsburg Empire a patchwork of many different regions and peoples in Europe ? Explain. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. The Habshurg Empire included the Alpine regions – the Tyrol, Austria, Sudentenland and Bohemia. It also included the Italian – speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while other half spoke a variety of dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke polish. Besides, there also lived a mass of subject peasant peoples—Bohemians, slovaks, slovenes, croats, Roumans. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.