Notes Of Forest And Wildlife Resources Geography Class 10th


Forest and Wildlife resources


According to I.U.C.N. existing plant and animal species are divided into 6 categories.

  1. Normal Species- The species whose population leaves are considered to be normal for their survival eg. Cattle, Sal.
  2. Endangered Species- The species which are in the danger of extinction. The survival is very difficult if the negative factors like- hunting, deforestation etc. continued. Eg- Indian Wild Ass.
  3. Vulnerable Species- The species whose population are declined. They may move into the endangered category in the near future. Eg- Asiatic elephant.
  4. Rare Species- The Species with small population. They may move into the endangered or vulnerable category in the near future.
  5. Endemic Species- The Species which are found only in particular areas. Eg- Nicobar Pigeon.
  6. Extinct Species– The Species which are nor found after searches. Eg- Pink head duck, etc.

Causes for the Depletion of flora and fauna-

  1. Transforming nature into a resource. Eg- Tress into furniture.
  2. Expansion of railways, agriculture, scientific forestry etc. during colonial periods.
  3. Shifting cultivation (slash and burn) practiced in Tribal belts.
  4. Large scale development projects, Eg- Narmada valley project in Madhya Pradesh. Nearly 40000 hectares of land forest have inundated.
  5. Mining, Eg- Buna Tiger Reserve in west Bengal is threatened by the ongoing do lomite mining.
  6. According to the environmentalists, grazing and furl-wood collectors are the major causes for the depletion for the flora and fanna.

Factors that led to the decline in bio-diversity-

  1. Habitat destruction, hunting, Poaching, Environmental pollution, Poisoning, forest fires etc. are some of the cause for the decline in bio-diversity.

Causes for the environmental degradation-

  1. Inequitable consumption of resources, differential sharing of responsibility to protect the environment.
  2. Over population in third-world countries.

The Destruction of forests and wildlife is not just a biological issue-Explain?

  1. Bio logical loss is correlated with the cultural loss.
  2. Many indigenous and forest dependent communities are marginalized and impoverished.
  3. Within the por, the women are affected more than men, because they take the responsibility of collection of fuel, fodder and water.
  4. Walking more than 10 km, per day to collect these, will create health problems to the women and also do not get time to look after home and children.
  5. Droughts and deforestation induced floods are the other results of deforestation.
  6. Poverty is the direct outcome of deforestation.

Steps taken by the government to protect flora and fauna-

  1. The Indian wildlife act was implemented in 1972 to protect the habitats.
  2. It aimed banned hunting, protecting habitats and restricting trade in wildlife.
  3. Many national parts and wildlife sanctuaries were set up by central and state governments.
  4. Projects like tiger project, rhinocerous were announced.
  5. Under the wildlife the act of 1980 and 1986 several hundreds of butterflies, moths etc. were included in the list of protected species.
  6. In 1991, for the first time, six species of plants were also included in the list.


Types and distribution of forests-

  1. Reserved Forests-More than half of the total forest area comes under reserved forests. They have great important to conserve forests and wildlife. Eg. J.K.
  2. Protected Forests- Almost one-third of the total forest area comes under protected forests. Eg- Punjab, Haryana, Bihar.
  3. Un classed Forests- The Forest and weste lands belongs to both government and private individuals and communities. Eg- North-Eastern states.

Protected forests and Reserved forests are together known as permanent forests.

Madhya Pradesh has largest area under permanent forests.

How communities have conserved forests and wildlife-

  1. Many communities are struggling to conserve the habitats along with government officials.
  2. In Sariska Tiger reserve (Rajasthan) villagers fought against mining and protected the habitats of plants and animals.
  3. The inhabitants of 5 villages in Alwar district of Rajasthan have protected 1200 hectors of forest by making their own rules and regulations.
  4. The Chipko Movement in the Himalayan region resisted deforestation and encouraged afforestation program.
  5. The ecological farming like ‘BeelBachaoAndolan’ and ‘Navdanya’ were introduced by the farmers without the use of chemical fertilizers.
  6. The joint Forest Management (J.F.M.) programmed was started in Orissa in 1988 and introduced with the collaboration of villager.

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