Notes Of Nationalism In India Class Xth



  • The First World War (1914-1918) was a turning point in the history of Indian National Movement.
  • It created a new political and economic
  • National Movement spread to new areas, influenced new social groups, developed new modes of Nationalists could demand new concessions from Great Britain.
  • But the war did not end hardships caused by it to millions of the poor in
  • Hardships suffered during the war – Huge defence expenditure, rise in prices, famines or crop failure (1918-19-20-21). Nearly 12 to 13 million people died (Census 1921) due to the famine.
  • Anger caused by forced recruitment of army in the villages. At this stage Gandhiji emerged on the  national
  • New Ideas – Satyagraha, a novel way of fighting the colonial rule in India. A non-aggressive, peaceful mass agitation against oppression and injustice. Gandhiji knew India could never match the British in
  • Satyagraha means insistence on A moral force, not passive resistance.
  • Gandhiji organised Satyagraha Movements in Champaran, Bihar (1916), Kheda district of Gujarat (1917) and amongst cotton mill workers in Ahmedabad (1918).
  • These campaigns established him as the leader of the
  • Rowlatt Act (1919), Jallianwala Bagh massacre (13 April, 1919) and the Khilafat Movement led Gandhiji to start his Non-Cooperation Movement in
  • Khilafat Movement was led by two brothers Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali; was founded to fight for Khilafat rights, and was against the harsh treatment given to the Khalifa, Emperor of the Turkish Empire, after the First World
  • Gandhiji convinced the Congress to join hands with the Khilafat Movement and start a Non-Cooperation Campaign for
  • Non-Cooperation with the British rule, programme adopted at the Nagpur Session of Congress in



  • Non-Cooperation began in January
  • Many groups joined it for their own specific
  • Swaraj did mean the same to
    • Movement in Towns : Middle class took up the fight. Students, teachers, lawyers gave up studies, jobs, practice and joined it in thousands. Council elections boycotted. Foreign goods    Liquor shops picketed.
      • Movement in the countryside : Peasants and tribals took over the struggle which turned violent at times. In Awadh, Baba Ramchandra fought against landlords and talukdars. In 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru and Baba Ramchandra formed Oudh Kisan

      In Andhra Pradesh : The peasants of Gudem Hills led a guerilla movement against the British. Their leader, Alluri Sitaram Raju, advocated use of force. He was captured and executed  in 1924.

      • Movement in Plantations : Workers in Assam agitated to move freely, a protest against the Inland Emigration Act (1859) which prevented them from leaving the plantation without
      • The Chauri-Chaura incident of 1922 made Gandhiji call off the



      • R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the Swaraj Party within the Congress to fight elections for the Councils and demand reform.
      • The Simon Commission (1928) led to protests throughout
      • At the Lahore Session of the Congress (Dec. 1929) the Congress adopted the resolution of Complete Swaraj as its 26th January, 1930 to be celebrated as Independence Day.
      • Gandhiji gave the call for Civil Disobedience
      • He chose ‘Salt’ as the symbol of unity of the nation. Called the ‘Salt Tax’ as most inhuman. The movement started on 31 January, 1930. He made eleven demands in a letter to the Viceroy Lord His demands covered every class from industrialists to peasants.
      • Famous Dandi March began on March 12, 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji reached Dandi, a village in Gujarat and broke the Salt Law by boiling water and manufacturing salt. Thus began the Civil Disobedience
      • The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) attempted to bring the government to a standstill by non-cooperating with the
      • The Civil Disobedience Movement aimed at paralysing the government by performing illegal
      • Boycott of foreign goods, non-payment of taxes, breaking forest laws were its main
      • The British Government followed a policy of brutal repression. Arrested all the leaders including Gandhiji and Nearly 100,000 people were arrested.
      • Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, signed a pact with Gandhiji on 5 March, 1931. Gandhiji agreed to attend the Second Round Table Conference and the British agreed to release all political prisoners.
      • Gandhiji returned from the Second Round Table Conference disappointed in December Civil Disobedience started  again.
      • By 1934 the Movement lost its
      • What Swaraj meant to different social groups who joined the Civil Disobedience
      • To the countryside : Rich peasant communities expected the revenue tax to be reduced, when the British refused to do so, they did not rejoin the movement in 1932.
        • The Poor were the peasants who rented the land from landlords. Depression made them unable to pay rent and wanted it to be reduced. Their relationship with the Congress became
        • The Business Classes. After the war, their huge profits were reduced, wanted protection against import of foreign goods. The failure of the Round Table Conference, curbed their enthusiasm for the Civil Disobedience
        • The industrial working class did not participate in a large number. They joined because of low wages and poor working conditions. Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demands as it would alienate the
        • Women and the Civil Disobedience Movement. 1930 was the year when women entered the struggle for Independence on a massive scale. During Gandhiji’s  Dandi March, they joined protest marches, picketed foreign clothes and shops. But Congress did not encourage them or gave  them important posts in the

        Limits  of  Civil Disobedience

        • The Dalits or the Untouchables did not actively participate in the movement, they demanded reservation of seats, separate electorates. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, the leader of the Dalits, formed an association in 1930, called the Depressed Classes Association. He clashed with
        • Gandhiji began a fast unto death against separate electorate. Finally Poona Pact between the two leaders (1932) gave reserved seats in Provincial and Central Councils but were voted by general
        • Muslim political organisations also kept away from the
        • Congress seemed more visibly associated with Hindu religious nationalist groups. The leader of the Muslim League M.A. Jinnah wanted reserved seats for Muslims in Central Assembly. Civil Disobedience Movement started in an atmosphere of distrust and suspicion between the two



        • Collective belonging comes through experiences of common struggles. A common history and fiction, through folklore, songs and popular prints and
        • Bharat Mata became the symbol of
        • Bakim Chandra Chattopadhyay created the image in his song “Vande Mataram” in his novel ‘Anand Math’ (1870s). Abanindranath Tagore painted Bharat Mata as a calm, composed, divine and spiritual
        • Rabindranath Tagore of Bengal and Natesa Sastri of Madras compiled songs, ballads, myths and
        • Reinterpretation of History : Indians delved in the past history and discovered India’s greatness and achievements in mathematics, literature, religion, culture, philosophy, crafts and

        Conclusion : Gandhiji channelised the anger against colonial government into a common struggle for freedom in the first half of the 20th century. He saw the emergence of a nation wanting to liberate itself from the colonial rule, in spite of all its differences.

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