Notes Of Water Resources Class 10th Geography Chapter-3


Water Resources


Reasons for water scarcity

  • Due to the variations in special seasonal and animal precipitation.
  • Over Exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water.
  • Water Scarcity is the outcome of large and growing population.
  • A large population means more water for domestic and of produce more food.
  • Water resources are exploited to expand agricultural production, which leads to decline in ground water level.
  • It affects water availability and food security of the people.
  • Intensive urbanization and industrialization.
  • 22% hydro-electricity in India is generated from water.
  • Most of the water is polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides, fertilizers etc.

Managing and conserving water resources is the need of the hour- Explain

  • To safeguard ourselves from health hazards.
  • To ensure food security.
  • For continuation of our livelihood and productive activities.
  • To prevent the degradation of eco-system.

Hydraulic structure in Ancient India-

  • In the first century B.C. at sringaverapur water harvesting system was existed using the flood water from Ganga river.
  • During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams lakes etc.were built.
  • Irrigation system was found in Kalinga, NagarjunaKonda, Bennur and Kohlapur.
  • In the 11th Century, Bhopal lake was built.
  • In the 14th Century, Lltush constructed a tank in HousKhas(Delhi).


Why are dams called Multi-purpose projects-

Dams are built for irrigation, electricity generation, water supply for domestic and industrial uses, flood control, recreation, navigation, fishing etc.

  • Nehru “Dams are temples of modern India.”



In recent years, multi-purpose projects are opposed by many-state-

  • Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow, resulting in excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir.
  • Dams make it difficult for the aquatic fauna to migrate.
  • Existing vegetation and soils are submerged under water.
  • Building of dams creates large scale displacement of local communities. They have to give up their hand, livelihood etc.
  • Irrigation changed the cropping pattern. The farmers shift to intensive and commercial crops.
  • The social gap between rich and poor are widened.
  • Floods occur due to the sedimentation in the reservoir and life and property are devastated.
  • Earthquakes, water-borne diseases, pollution from the excessive use of water.

Rain Water Harvesting

Traditional methods in India used for water harvesting-

  • In the hilly areas, the people make diversion challenges like ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’.
  • Rooftop rainwater harvesting is being practiced to store drinking water in Rajasthan.
  • Innundation channels are developed in West-Bengal.
  • In the arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields are converted into rainfed storage structure. Eg- Khadins in Jaisalmer, Johads in Rajasthan.

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