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The Frog And The Nightingale Class 10th | Summary, Notes, Video PDF Download

Poetry- The Frog And The Nightingale

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The Poem Focuses on the foolishness of following others blindly and indiscreetly. One should never lose own uniqueness wherein lies one’s individuality. In this poem, a nightingale fails to use her own individual thinking and falls into a trap of a cunning frog who has an own axe to grind. Such is the way of the cunning persons who exploit the weaknesses of the gullible persons to meet their ends.


The poem focuses on the cunningness of a frog living in a place called Bingle bog. The frog continues to croak from night to morning every day. His voice is harsh and unpleasant. No one wants to listen to him. in fact, all creatures hate his voice. They do everything to make the frog stop singing but in vain. One day a nightingale comes and sits on the tree of the frog. She begins to sing.

The frog is surprised to hear the sweet melody of the nightingale. He fears that his position as the only singer of the bog will be threatened by the song of the nightingale. His fear comes true. All the birds listen to the song of the nightingale and praise her very much. This makes the frog sad.

The Frog feels jealous of the popularity of the nightingale. He introduces him self to the nightingale as the owner of the tree. He says that he is a music critic. He takes the nightingale into confidence and makes an evil plan to get ride of her. He makes her sing ec\xcessively for longs hours. He starts pointing out her mistakes and drawbacks. The result is that the nightingale has the beauty of her voice. The other creatures stop coming to hear her songs at the concerts arranged by the cunning frog. She loses the beauty of her voice. The other creatures stop coming to here her songs at the concerts arranged by the cunning frog. Ultimately the nightingale dies after she has burst one of her veins. The frog continues to sing in a loud, unpleasant way, now unchallenged.

The Frog And The Nightingale Video In Hindi


Nationalist Movement in Indo – China Notes


  • Indo-China is the place between India and China.
  • Indo-China comprises of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
  • Vietnam gained formal independence in 1945.
  • They were ruled by Chinese emperors.
  • Even after their independence, they followed Chinese system of government and culture.
  • Vietnam was also linked to maritime silk-route that brought in goods people and idea.
  • Other networks of trade connected Vietnam it to the hinterland where non-Vietnamese people such as Khmer Comodians lived.


  1. How did France control Vietnam? 

  • The most visible form of French control was military and economic domination.
  • They tried to reshape the culture of Vietnam.
  1. How was French Indo-China formed? 

  • French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858.
  • By 1880, they had a strong grip over northern region.
  • After the Franco-Chinese war, French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam in 1887. French Indo-China was formed.
  1. Why did French think colonies necessary? 

  • Colonies were essential to supply natural resource and other goods.
  • French also thought it was the Mission of Advanced European countries to civilize the backward region.
  • They built canals in the Mekong Delta to increase cultivation.
  • Rice production increased in Vietnam and by 1931 Vietnam became 3rd largest exporter of rice in the world.
  • Construction of Trans Indo-China rail network linked northern and southern Vietnam. Final link with Yunan in China was completed by 1910; Second line was built linking Vietnam to Siam via Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh.
  1. Why should colonies be developed? 

  • According to Paul Bernard, an influential writer & policy maker believed that the economy of the colonies must be developed.
  • He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make a profit.
  • If the colonies were developed and standard of living of people improves they would buy more goods leading to the profits to the French.
  1. What were the barriers to the economic development of Vietnam? 

  • According to Paul Bernard high population levels, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness among the peasants were the barriers.
  • Suggestion-: To reduce poverty & to increase agricultural land reforms must be introduced as Japanese done in 1890.
  • Colonial economy in Vietnam was based on rice cultivation & rubber plantation owned by French and small Vietnamese elite.


French thought that it was the duty of Europeans to civilize the backward region like Vietnam even by destroying local culture traditions & religion.

  1. What was the Dilemma of colonial education? 

  • The dilemma was on what should be the medium of giving education.
  • The French feared that if the Vietnamese were given education, they would start questioning the French power.
  • They also feared that the French would lose their jobs as Policeman, Teachers, Shopkeepers, etc.
  1. Who is Colons?

French citizens living in Vietnam are called Colons.


  1. What were the broad opinions on colonial education? 

  • Some policy makers emphasized that French should be the medium of education.
  • They felt, by learning the French language the Vietnam would be influenced by the French culture. They expected that the educated Vietnamese would respect the French sentiments and ideals.
  • While some others suggested that Vietnamese must be taught in the lower classes and French should be taught in the higher classes.
  • Those who learned French and acquired French culture would be awarded French citizenship.
  1. Why were only a few admitted, passed school leaving examination?

This was because of the deliberate policy of failing the students in the final year so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs.

  1. C) How school textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule?

Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labor but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in fields but not rule themselves, they were skilled copyists but not creative.


  1. Write the short note on Tonkin, a free school? 

  • Tonkin, a free school, was started in 1907 to provide education to the Vietnamese.
  • The education included the class in Science, Hygiene, and French.
  • The school encouraged the adoption of western styles such as having a short hair calf.


  1. A) The story of protest erupted in Saigon Native Girls School.

In 1926, A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seat was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy front bench. She refused. The principal also a colon expelled her. When angry student protested, they too were expelled, leading to a further spread of open protest. Seeing the situation getting out of control, the government forced the school to take the student back. The principal reluctantly agreed but warned the students, “I will crush all Vietnamese under my feet. Ah‟ you wish my deportation. Know well that I will leave only after I am assured Vietnamese no longer inhabit Cochin chin.

  1. What is the role played by the students in Resistance Movement? 

  • The students fought against the colonial government efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from getting white collar jobs.
  • They were inspired by the patriotic feelings & understood the duty of educated to fight for the benefit of the society.
  • Many political parties were formed by students like Young Annam and a newspaper named “Annamese student” was also published.


  1. How did plague strike Hanoi? 
  • French wanted to create a Modern Vietnam, and so they decided to rebuild Hanoi.
  • The modern architecture & engineering skills were used to make the modern city.
  • But in 1903 the modern part of Hanoi was struck by bubonic plague.
  • The refuse from the old city drained straight out into the river or during heavy rain or flood, overflowed into the street.
  • The large sewers in the modern part of the city a symbol of modernity were an ideal and protected breeding ground or rats.


  • To prevent plague Rat Hunt was started in 1902.
  • French hired Vietnamese worker and paid them for each they caught.
  • Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they come together, they could negotiate higher bounty.
  • The money was paid for each tail was shown as proof.
  • Worker understood that they could own profit out of it they just clipped the tail and released the rats so that the process could be continued.
  • Some workers began to raise rats to earn money.
  • So the Rat Hunt was a failure.


  1. A) What were the religious beliefs in Vietnam?

Religious beliefs in Vietnam were a mixture of-:

  • Buddhism
  • Confucianism
  • Local Practices


  1. Write about Scholar’s Revolt.

 An early movement against the French control and the spread of Christianity was the

Scholar‟s Revolt in 1868.

  • This movement was led by an official at imperial court. Angered by the spread of Christianity and French control.
  • This revolt became popular in „NGU AN‟ and „HA TIEN‟ provinces where thousands of Catholics were killed.
  • But very soon the revolt was crushed by the French.
  1. Write about Hoa Hao movement. 
  • Hoa-Hao movement was an Anti-French movement started by „Huynh-Phu-So‟ and became popular in Mekong-Delta in 1939.
  • He performed miracles and helped the poor.
  • He was against useless expenditure, the sale of brides, use of alcohol and opium.
  • French wanted to suppress this movement and declared him mad and called him Mad Bonze. He was put in mental asylum.
  • The doctor who had to declare him mad became his follower and finally in 1941, French doctor declared that he was not mad. French authorities exiled him to Laos & sent many of his followers to the concentration camps.


  1. What are the different answers offered to question of modernization? 
  • Some intellectuals felt that Vietnamese tradition had to be strengthened to stop the domination of West.
  • While others believed that Vietnamese had to learn from the west.

2. Write a short note on Phan-Boi-Chau. 

  • Phan-Boi-Chau was a nationalist leader who fought against French.
  • He formed the revolutionary society (Duy Tan Hoi) in 1903 with Prince Cuong De as a head.
  • He met the Chinese reformer Liang Quichao in 1905 in Yokohama and with his influence he wrote a book named “The history of loss of Vietnam”.
  • It became the best seller in Vietnam & China.

The book focused on two connected themes-:

  1. The loss of Sovereignty.
  2. Serving of ties with China.
  1. Who was Phan-Chu-Trinh? 
  • Phan-Chu-Trinh was a nationalist leader who was against the monarchy.
  • His desire was to set up a democracy republic in Vietnam and was influenced by the democratic principle of the west.
  • He was in favor of western civilization.
  • He wanted the French to set up legal & educational institution& develop agriculture



  1. Describe GO-EAST movement? 
  • Nearly in 1907-1908, nearly 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to get modern education.
  • But their primary objective was to drive out French from Vietnam, overthrow the puppet emperor and to re-establish Nguyen Dynasty.
  • They looked for foreign arms & help.
  • They appealed Japanese as fellow Asians.
  • Japan was unconquered by all imperialist power. It was very small country.
  • Its victory over Russia in 1907 proved its military capabilities.
  • Vietnamese Students establish a branch of restoration society in Tokyo, but after 1908, Japanese Ministry of Interior clamped down on them. Many including Phan-Boi-Chau were deported enforced to seek exile in China & Japan.
  1. Who was Sun Yat-Sen? 
  • Sun Yat-Sen was a nationalist leader of China.
  • The monarchy is China was overthrown by a popular movement started by him in 1911.
  • Later a republic was set up in China. The Vietnamese were inspired by these developments.
  • Vietnamese students organized the association for the restoration of Vietnam.


  1. What are impacts or consequent of the great depression of 1930 on Vietnam? 
  • The great depression of 1930 had a profound impact on Vietnam.
  • The prices of Rubber and rice fell leading to rural debts unemployment and rural uprisings.
  • The uprising became more in Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces because they were the poorest provinces and were known as Electrical Fuels of Vietnam.
  • The French suppress these uprising severely.
  1. Write a short note on Ho-Chi-Minh. 
  • In Feb 1930 Ho-Chi-Minh formed Vietnamese communist party. Later renamed Indo-Chinese Communist Party. He was inspired by militant activities of European Communist Parties.
  • In 1940, Japan occupied Vietnam, so Vietnamese had to fight against Japan on one side and France on another side.
  • The league for the independence of Vietnam known as Vietminh fought against Japan & recaptured Hanoi in September 1949.
  • The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was established & Ho-Chi-Minh became its chairman.


  1. Developments in the new Republic of Vietnam. 
  • French appointed Bao Dai (Vietnam Leader) as the puppet emperor. So the Vietminh fought against France and defeated them in 1954 at Dien-Bien-Phu.
  • {Supreme French commander of the French army is General Henry Navarre}.
  • It is a peace negotiation in Geneva; the Vietnamese were focused on dividing the country.
  • Ho-Chi-Minh took power in South Bao Dai took power in the south.
  • But very soon, Bao Dai rule was overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Diem and built a repressive government.
  • Those who opposed Diem were called a communist and were jailed & killed.
  • Diem made ordinance 10, a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism.
  • His dictatorial government was opposed by National Liberation Front (NLF).
  • With the help of Ho-Chi-Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of Vietnam.


  • America was worried about the communist gaining power in Vietnam.
  • The USA was alarmed at the spreading of communist ideologies throughout the world. So they decided to intervene to stop communist.
  • America sent thousands of troops equipped with heavy weapons like tanks, bombs, etc. B52s powerful bomb, Agent Orange, Napalm and Phosphorus bombs.
  1. What was the effect of Vietnamese war within the US? 
  • Many Americans criticized the government for involving in the war.
  • Compulsory service in the army angered the youth especially university graduates.
  • Many of those sent for fight did not belong to privileged elite but were minorities and children of working-class families.
  • The USA media and films played a major role.
  • Hollywood films such as John Wayne‟s Green Berets (1968) supported the war while the films such as Francis Ford Coppola‟s „Apocalypse Now‟ (1939) criticized the war.
  • The Americans understood the power of Nationalism.


  • It symbolizes how the Vietnamese used their limited resources to great advantage.
  • The trail, an immense network of footpath and the roads were used to transport men and material from North-South.
  • The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way.
  • In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly the supplies were carried by the porters, mostly women carried 25kg on their back or 70kg on their bicycles.
  • The US regularly bombed the trail to disrupt the supplies, but the intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly.


  • Women in Vietnam enjoyed great quality but they had limited freedom to decide their future.
  • The writers and political thinkers began idealizing who rebelled against social norms.
  • In 1930‟s, a famous novel by the Nhar Linh caused a scandal because it showed a woman leaving a forced marriage and marrying someone of her choice who was involved in nationalist politics.


  • In 1913, the Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on the lives of the Trung sisters who fought against Chinese domination.
  • Trieu Au; who was another nationalist lived in third-century CE. Orphaned in her childhood lived with her brother she went into the jungles gathered a large army and fought against the Chinese.


  • Photographs in magazines and journals showed women as young & brave & dedicated soldiers.
  • Some stories spoke of their incredible bravery in single-handedly killing the enemy – Nguyen Thi Xuan, For instance, was reputed to have shot down a jet with just twenty bullets.
  • They were represented not only a s warriors but also as workers; They were shown as carrying a rifle with one hand and hammer with the another one.
  • Many women joined the army, helped in nursing the wounded, constructing underground rooms & tunnels and fighting the enemy.
  • 70% of 80% workers who worked as potters were women
  • At the end of war, women were shown working in agricultural cooperatives, factories & production units.


  1. What are results of Vietnamese war? 
  • The US had failed to achieve its objective they could not crush the Vietnamese resistance.
  • Thousands of US soldiers, as well as Vietnamese, lost their lives. This was the first

“Television War”.

  • The Vietnamese writer like Mary McCarthy, actors like Jane Fonda, praised the Vietnamese and even visited Vietnam.
  • A peace settlement was signed in Paris in January 1974 and ended the conflicts.
  • The NLF occupied the presidential palace on April 30, 1975, and Vietnam was unified.


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Is Matter Around Us Pure Science Chapter 2 | Notes, Study Materials & PDF Download


 Science for class-IX (NCERT)

Chapter 2: Is Matter Around Us Pure


2.1- Introduction

In the previous chapter, we learned about matter. In this chapter, we would discuss about mixtures, compounds, and elements. We would learn about different types of mixtures and discuss what matter is pure or not pure.

2.2- Mixture

When two or more pure forms of matter combine together, it is known as a mixture. These pure forms of matter are also known as substance.

Substance:-Any form of matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by using any physical means is known as substance. For e.g.- sodium chloride or salt is a substance and cannot be separated into other forms by any means. Another example is water or H2O.

Some examples of mixture can be:

  • Soft Drinks that are prepared by mixing various ingredients, flavors, and colors together.
  • Cement is a mixture of limestone, silica and some other material.
  • Air around us is itself a mixture of various gases like Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide etc.

2.3- Types of mixture

Depending upon the nature of the constituents of the mixture, a mixture can be categorized into three types:

2.3.1- Solution

The homogenous mixture of two or more substances is called a solution. In a solution, all the particles of the constituents are evenly distributed within the mixture. The components of a solution are the solvent and the solute. Some examples of solutions are:

  • Alloys, which are the mixtures of two or more metals or a metal and a non-metal that cannot be separated into their components by physical methods. Brass is an alloy containing 30% zinc and 70% copper.
  • As discussed above, air is also a homogenous mixture of various gases that are uniformly mixed together in fixed percentage.

Also we have used words solvent and solute above, which we can define as follows:

Solvent:- The component of the solution that dissolves the other component in it is called solvent. Generally, it is the component present in a larger amount.

Solute:– The component of the solution that dissolves within the solvent is called solute. Generally, it is the substance present in a smaller amount.

Keeping above points in mind, we can find some more examples regarding a solution:

  1. A mixture of sugar in the water is an example of solid mixed inside a liquid solution. In this solution, water acts like the solvent and sugar act like solute.
  2. ‘Tincture of iodine’, which is a solution of iodine in alcohol, contains iodine as the solute and alcohol as the solvent.
  • The aerated drinks like soda water, cola drinks, are solutions of gas inside liquid. They contain carbon dioxide as the solute and water as solvent.
  1. The air around us is a solution of gas inside gas. It contains gases like 21% Oxygen and 78% Nitrogen as the main components and numerous other gases that are present in a very small percentage.

Properties of a solution:-

  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture.
  • The particles of a solution are smaller than 1 nm (10-9 metre) and cannot be seen with naked eyes.
  • Because of such small particles size, they do not scatter a beam of light passing through the solution. So, the path of light is not visible in a solution.
  • The solute particles can’t be separated from the mixture using filtration. The solute particles do not settle down in a solution, so a solution is stable.

Concentration of a solution:-

Concentration refers to the amount of solute present in the solution in a given solution mixture. It is the amount of solute present per unit volume or per unit mass of the solution/solvent. There are three types of concentrations for a solution:

  1. Dilute solution: When the amount of solute present in the solution/solvent is low, then it is a dilute solution.
  2. Concentrated solution: When the amount of solute present in the solution/solvent is high, then it is a concentrated solution.
  • Saturated solution: When the amount of solute present in the solution/solvent is equal to the full capacity (i.e. the solution has dissolved as much solute as it can hold) of the solution, then it is called a saturated solution. Also, if the amount of solute contained in a solution is less than the saturation level, it is called an unsaturated solution.

Solubility:-The maximum amount of solute which a solution can hold at the given temperature, or in other words, the maximum capacity of a solution for holding the solute particles at a given temperature is called the solubility of that solution.

Concentration of a solution=Amount of solute/Amount of solution


Amount of solute/Amount of solvent

2.3.2- Suspension                     

A suspension is a non-homogeneous mixture in which the solid particles are dispersed in the liquid. In other words, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not dissolve but remain suspended throughout the bulk of the medium. The particles of a suspension can be seen with naked eyes. Some examples of a suspension are given below:

  1. A mixture of sand in water. The sand particles are insoluble and remain suspended.
  2. Muddy water is also a suspension of mud in water.

Properties of a suspension:-

  • A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture.
  • Particles of a suspension are visible to the naked eyes.
  • Particles of a suspension can scatter a beam of light passing through them and make its path visible.
  • Solute particles can settle down when left undisturbed and then, can be separated by the process of filtration. In other words, a suspension is an unstable mixture.

Note:When the particles of a suspension settle down, the suspension breaks and it does not scatter light anymore. This explains more clearly that why we call a suspension unstable.

2.3.3- Colloid or Colloidal solution               

A colloidal solution or colloid is a heterogeneous mixture, in which the particles are uniformly spread in the solution. The particles are too small to be seen with naked eyes, but large enough to scatter a beam of light. Colloids are used in industries and also in daily life. There are two components of a colloid:

  1. Dispersed phase:The particles that are uniformly spread throughout the solution are called the dispersed phase.
  2. Dispersion medium: The medium in which the particles are spread is called the dispersion medium.

Before we talk more about colloidal solutions, let’s discuss about an important scientific phenomenon which we have been mentioning above:

Tyndall effect:-It is the phenomenon in which a beam of light gets scattered or in other words, the scattering of a beam of light is called the Tyndall effect. It was named after the scientist who had discovered it.

So, when we say that a suspension or colloidal solution can scatter a beam of light, we mean that a suspension or colloidal solution shows Tyndall effect.

This effect can also be observed when a small beam of light enters a room through a small hole. This is due to the scattering of light by the particles of dust and smoke in the air. It can also be observed when sunlight passes through the canopy of a dense forest. This is due to the mist, containing tiny droplets of water, which act as particles of colloid dispersed in air.

Properties of a colloid:-

  • A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture.
  • Particles of a colloid are too small to be seen with naked eyes.
  • Particles of colloid are big enough to scatter a beam of light passing through it and make its path visible.
  • Particles of a colloid do not settle down when left undisturbed, or in other words, a colloid is quite stable.
  • Particles of a colloid cannot be separated from the mixture by filtration. However, a special technique called centrifugationcan be used to separate them.

Note:Colloids are classified according to the state i.e. solid, liquid and gas, of the dispersing medium and the dispersed phase. In the following table given below, you can see some examples of colloids that we come across in our daily life:

Chapter-2:Is Matter Around Us Pure

2.4- Techniques used to separate the components of a mixture

The particles of heterogeneous mixtures can be easily separated by easy methods like sieving, handpicking and filtration. However, apart from these simple techniques, there are some special techniques that can be used to separate the components of mixture. In this section, we will discuss about some of these techniques with examples.

2.4.1- Evaporation

Evaporation is a separation technique used to separate a volatile component from its non-volatile solute. This method can be used to separate coloured component (dye) from blue/black ink. Ink is a mixture of dye in water. We can observe this technique with the help of the following activity:

  • Take a beaker and fill it half with water.
  • Now put a watch glass on the mouth of the beaker.
  • Put a few drops of ink on the watch glass.
  • Start heating the beaker. Observe the evaporation taking place from the watch glass.
  • Keep heating until any further change cannot be observed
  • You will see that the Dye has been separated from the blue/black ink.

2.4.2- Centrifugation

We have already talked about centrifugation earlier. Now we must discuss what centrifugation is and where it is used. This technique works on the principle that the denser particles are forced to the bottom and lighter particles stay at the top when spun rapidly. For this purpose, a centrifugation machine is used. (While sometimes a milk churner can also be used when the technique is used on full cream, toned or double-toned milk) Here is a small activity to understand centrifugation:

  • Take some full-cream milk in a test tube.
  • Use a centrifuging machine (or a milk churner) for two minutes.
  • You can see that the cream has been separated from the milk.

Applications/Uses of Centrifugation:-

  • It is used in the diagnostic laboratories for carrying out blood and urine tests.
  • It is commonly used in dairies or at home to separate butter/cream from milk.
  • It is used in washing machines to squeeze out the water from dirty clothes.

2.4.3- Separation of immiscible liquids

Immiscible liquids are liquids which cannot be mixed together. The technique used to separate two immiscible liquids is quite simple and we can observe it with the help of a small activity in which we try to separate kerosene oil from water using a separating funnel:

  • Take the mixture of kerosene oil and water.
  • Pour the mixture in a separating funnel.
  • Let it undisturbed for some time until separate layers of oil and water are formed.
  • Open the stopcock of the separating funnel and pour out the lower layer of water carefully.
  • Now, close the stopcock as the oil reaches it.
  • Kerosene oil and water have been separated.

Applications/Uses of using a separating funnel (or a similar tool):-

  • This technique is used to separate the mixture of oil and water.
  • This technique is used in the extraction of iron from its ore. For this purpose, the lighter slag is removed from the top to leave the molten iron at the bottom in the furnace.

This technique works on the principle that immiscible liquids separate out in layers depending on their densities.

2.4.4- Sublimation

Sublimation is a technique used to separate mixtures that contain a sublimable volatile component from a non-sublimable impurity. Please note that in the first chapter we have learnt that sublimation is the process of changing of state directly from solid into a gas. This process is thus also used in separation techniques. Some solids that sublime are ammonium chloride, camphor, naphthalene and anthracene. Below is a small activity to show separation of ammonium chloride and salt mixture by sublimation:

  • Take a china dish and put some mixture of ammonium chloride and salt on it.
  • Take a funnel and put it inverted over the china dish.
  • Now put a cotton plug in the mouth of the inverted funnel.
  • Start heating the china dish. Vapours of ammonium chloride would be formed inside the apparatus and solidified ammonium chloride would be deposited on the walls of the funnel.
  • Keep heating until there are no more vapours.
  • Remove the funnel. You would find that the salt is left behind on the china dish.

2.4.5- Chromatography

The name of this technique has been derived from the word ‘Kroma’ of Greek language which means ‘Colour’. This is due to the fact that this technique was first used in the separation of colours.

Chromatography is the technique that is used to separate those solutes which dissolve in the same solvent. Below is an activity to show how to separate different colours from black ink using chromatography:

  • Take a thin strip of filter paper.
  • Take a pencil and draw a line on the filter paper. This line should be approximately 3 cm above the lower edge.
  • At the centre of the line, put a small drop of ink from a sketch pen or fountain pen. Let this ink dry.
  • Take a test tube (or a glass, beaker, jar, etc) containing water and lower the filter paper into it in such a way that the drop of ink is just above the water level. Leave it undisturbed.
  • As the water rises up, you would observe different colours on the filter paper strip i.e. different colours have been separated from black ink.

Note:In the above activity, the ink has water as the solvent and the black ink/dye as the solute. As the water level rises, the filter paper takes along the dye particles with it. A dye is generally a mixture of two or more colours. So, the colour that is more soluble in water rises faster and the colours get separated from the black ink/dye.

Applications/Uses of Chromatography:-

  • It is used to separate colours from a dye.
  • It is used to separate pigments from natural colours.
  • It is used to separate drugs from blood.


In the above sections, we have discussed about separating two immiscible liquids. In this section we will discuss about a special technique called distillation that is used to separate two miscible liquids.

Distillation is used for the separation of components of a mixture containing two miscible liquids which boil without decomposition and have sufficient difference in their boiling points. Below is a small activity that shows how to separate a mixture of acetone and water with the help of distillation:

  • Take the mixture of acetone and water.
  • Pour it in a distillation flask and fit it with a thermometer.
  • Attach the flask with a clamp and a water condenser on one side.
  • Put a jar/beaker at the outlet of the water condenser.
  • Heat the mixture slowly, closely watching the thermometer.
  • Observe that the acetone vaporizes, condenses in the condenser and can be collected from the outlet into the jar/beaker.
  • Observe how the water is left behind in the distillation flask.
Attach this photo in distillation section after activity
Source: NCERT

Fractional Distillation:-

We have discussed the distillation process above. However, there is another related process called fractional distillationwhich we would discuss in this same section.

Fractional distillation is the process used to separate a mixture of two or more miscible liquids for which the difference in their boiling points is less than 25 K. Some applications of this process are the separation of different gases from the airand separation of different factions from petroleum products. The apparatus used in this process is similar to that of a simple distillation, except for that a fractionating column is fitted in between the distillation flask and the condenser.

Fractionating column:It is a tube packed with glass beads. The glass beads provide surface area for the vapours to cool and condense repeatedly.

2.4.7- Separation of different components of air

We have already discussed before that the air is a mixture of various gases like oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, helium etc. Is there a way to separate these gases from the air? The answer is-  fractional distillation. In the previous section, we mentioned fractional distillation. In this section, we will discuss that how this technique is used in the separation of various gases from the air around us.

Suppose we want a specific gas, say oxygen, out of the air mixture, then we simply need to separate out all the other gases present in the air. This process can be understood by the help of following steps:

  • Firstly, the air is compressed by increasing the pressure.
  • Then, it is cooled by decreasing the temperature and liquid air is obtained.
  • The liquid air is allowed to warm up slowly in a fractional distillation column.
  • The different gases in air get separated at different heights depending upon their boiling points.

The first gas that gets separated is Carbon dioxide that separates out as dry ice after the cold compressed air reaches the ‘separator’. Next gas that separates is nitrogen followed by argon that separate in the fractional distillation column. Oxygen in the form of liquid (liquid oxygen) is left behind and thus we separate oxygen from the mixture of air.

separation of gases from air
Source: NCERT

2.4.8- Crystallisation

The last technique that we will discuss in this section is crystallisation. Crystallisation is a process that separates a pure solid from a solution in the form of its crystals. This method is used to purify solids. For instance, the salt we obtain from seawater is not pure and can have lots of impurities within it. For such impurities, we use the crystallisation process. We can understand this process with a simple activity:

  • Take about 5 g of impure sample of copper sulphate (CUSO4) in a china dish.
  • Dissolve it in the least amount of water.
  • Filter out the impurities using filtration.
  • Now evaporate the water from the copper sulphate solution so that you get a saturated solution.
  • Now cover this solution with a filter paper.
  • Leave it undisturbed for a day at room temperature so that it cools down.
  • After a day, you will obtain the crystals of copper sulphate in the china dish.

Now another question that arises is that which process is better? The similar evaporation process or the crystallisation process? The answer is crystallisation. Why?

Why the crystallisation method is better than evaporation:-

Although there may be many reasons to elaborate the answer, below are two main reasons to answer this question that has arisen:

  1. Evaporation is not a better technique because some solids may get decomposed and even some solids like sugar may get charred/burned on heating to dryness.
  2. Evaporation is not a better technique because some impurities may remain dissolved in the solution even after filtration and on evaporating, these impurities may contaminate the solid.

Applications/Uses of Crystallisation:-

  • Crystallisation is used in the purification of salt that we obtain from seawater.
  • It is also used in the separation of crystals of alum (phitkari) from impure samples.

So, these are the few techniques that are used in the separation of the components of mixture depending upon the nature of the components of the mixture. Now, it is time to discuss about an important concept which have already studied in previous classes and see how this concept is useful to understand this chapter.

2.5- Physical and Chemical changes

So as we have discussed in the previous chapter, the concept is necessary to understand the difference between a pure substance and a mixture. Let us understand this concept with the help of few terms:

  1. Physical properties:The properties of a substance that can be observed and specified are called physical properties. For example- colour, hardness, rigidity, fluidity, density, melting point, boiling point, etc. are all physical properties.


  1. Physical change:A change in the physical property of any solid, liquid or gas is called a physical change. So, change in colour, change in shape, change in state are all physical changes.

The interconversion of states (or change of state) is also a physical change because it has no effect on the chemical composition or chemical nature of that substance.

  • Chemical properties: The properties of a substance that determine its chemical nature and chemical composition, like how the substance would react with fire, how does the substance smells, what is the chemical composed of, etc. are all the chemical properties of that substance.
  1. Chemical change: A change in the chemical composition or chemical properties of a substance is called a chemical change. An important characteristic of chemical change is that new substances are formed in a chemical change. A chemical change is also called a chemical reaction. You would study more about chemical reactions in Class 10th,

Burning of candle:During the burning of a candle, both physical and chemical changes take place. The wax is melted, which is a physical change while the carbon dioxide gas that is evolved is a chemical change in the wax.

2.6-Types of Pure substances

Now when we have already discussed a lot about mixtures of different substances, it is finally the time to discuss about pure substances and their types. This concept is really necessary to understand as you would be learning more about them in upcoming chapters as well as in higher classes.

On the basis of their chemical composition, we can classify the substances as elements and compounds. Let us discuss about them in detail:

2.6.1- Elements

An element is a basic form of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by using chemical reactions. This definition of an element has been given by a French chemist, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94). Furthermore, Robert Boyle was the first scientistthat first used the term element in 1661. Elements are generally divided into metals, non-metals and metalloids.

Metals and their properties:-Metals are hard, shiny substances that generally show some or all of these properties:

  • They have a lustre (shine).
  • They have silvery-grey or golden-yellow colour.
  • They conduct heat and electricity.
  • They can be drawn into wires i.e. they are ductile.
  • They can be hammered into thin sheets i.e. they are
  • They make a ringing sound when they are hit i.e. they are

Some metals are iron, zinc, copper, gold, silver, sodium, potassium, etc. Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature.

Non –metals and their properties:- Non-metals are soft, non-conductors of heat and electricity that show some or all of these properties:

  • They are available in a variety of colours.
  • They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
  • They are neither lustrous, sonorous, malleable or ductile.

Some non-metals are hydrogen, iodine, carbon, bromine, chlorine, etc.

Metalloids: The elements that have intermediate properties between metals and non-metals, i.e. some properties of metals and some properties of non-metals are called metalloids. Some metalloids are boron, silicon and germanium.

Now coming back to elements, here are some important facts about elements that you must look at:

  • There are more than 100 elements known today out of which ninety-two are naturally occurring while the rest are man-made.
  • Most of the elements known at present are solid.
  • Eleven elements are in gaseous state at room temperature.
  • Two elements are liquid at room temperature i.e. mercury and bromine.
  • The elements Gallium and Cesium become liquid at a temperature slightly above the room temperature. (303 K)

2.6.2- Compounds

A compound is a substance which is composed of two or more elements which are chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion or a fixed amount. Examples of compounds are sulphur chloride, hydrogen sulphide, ammonium sulphate, and even water. You can easily conclude that in a compound, say sulphur chloride, the elements sulphur and chlorine are combined in fixed proportions

Difference between mixtures and compounds:-

Look at the following table in order to understand the difference between mixtures and compounds:

Chapter-2:Is Matter Around Us Pure

Chapter-2:Is Matter Around Us Pure


The Letter Chapter 3 English Class 10th | Summary, Study Materials PDF Download

Chapter 3 The Letter Class 10th NCERT



Dhumaketu (1892-1965), the pen name of Gaurishanker Govardhandas Josh, was a prolific writer. He is considered to be the pioneer of the Gujarati short story. It this story, the postmaster comes tp realize the agony of the coachman Ali, separated from his daughter, when he finds himself in his state. The anxiety to receive some news about his ailing daughter makes him understand the anxiety of the coachman to receive a letter from his long separated daughter. He realizes how much painful the separation in loves is!

Mrs Packletide’s Tiger Class 10th | English Chapter 2 Summary, Study Material

Chapter-2 Mrs. Packletide’s Tiger



Saki, the story writer, was born in 1870 and passed away in 1916. His real name was Hector Munro, a British author. He is known for his witty and satirical stories, most of which have surprise endings.

‘Mrs. Packletide’s Tiger’ is a satire on the vanity of women who go to extremes to show their superiority over their rivals. Mrs. Packletide wanted to shoot a tiger only to prove that she was no less that Loona Bimberton who had carried eleven miles in an airplane and continued to boast about it. Though she ‘killedi a tiger yet she had to pay the heavy price to satisfy her vanity.

Matter in our Surroundings Notes of Science Class 9th | PDF Download


Science for class-  IX (NCERT)

Chapter-1 –Matter in our surroundings


You all know about matter from our previous classes. In this chapter, you will study more deeply about the characteristics of different forms of matter and their properties.

1.2-What is matter?

Matter is anything that hassome massand occupies some space. A book, a table, a river, a fountain of steam , huge rocky  mountains and even a small iron nail; all these look so different are all different forms of matter.

The ancient Indian scientists classified matter into five elements – air, water, earth, fire, and sky. But the modern scientists classify it on the basis of their physical and chemical structure. Matter has different forms and different forms of matter have different characteristics and different properties.

1.3-Different forms of matter.

Matter is present in three forms-


Solids are mostly hard and rigid. Their molecules have very little space or no space between them. They have fixed shape and fixed volume. This means that they are unable to change their shapes and they even break if extreme force is applied on them.They are least compressible.

But, what about a sponge? You can easily determine that a sponge is a solid, but you can easily change its shape. Then how is sponge a solid? Also, think of a rubber band which also comes in the categories of solid. You can stretch it easily according to your need, then how is a rubber called a solid?

  • A sponge is obviously a solid but has tiny pours between its molecules which allow the passage of air through them. This creates space between the molecules of sponge and that’s why you can change its shape.
  • A rubber band again is a solid, but its molecules are This allows the rubber band to be stretched according to your needs. However, the rubber band breaks if you try to stretch it over limit, so this proves that rubber band is a solid.


Liquids are not rigid like solids but are fluid, which means they can flow. They have more molecular space than solids. They actually don’t possess any definite shape, but they do have a definite volume. They take the shape of the container in which they are kept. For example:- when you take a glass of water, the water inside the glass is in the shape of the glass. If you pour the water in a bowl, it changes shape to that of bowl. Liquids are more compressible than solids.


Gases have the least molecular space. They neither have any fixed shape, nor have any fixed volume. Some examples of gases are oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc. The molecules of gases keep moving. Because of the least molecular space, most gases are not visible. But they are present in all our surroundings. Even an empty jar container too has gas in it.

The molecules of gases in a container keep moving at high speed in random directions. Due to this random movement, they hit the walls of the container too. This way, they exert  pressure on the walls of container in which they are kept.Gases are highly compressible and are available in compressed forms of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

andCompressed Natural Gas (CNG), etc.

Below is the table of characteristics of different forms of matter:-

Matter in our Surroundings Notes of Science Class 9th | PDF Download

Table 1.1-Different characteristics of different types of matter.

Two Gentlemen of Verona English Class 10th | Summary, Characters, NCERT Solutions & Study Materials


Chapter 1 Two Gentlemen of Verona



Born in 1896, A.J Cronian was a medical Practitioner in wales and London. He wrote his first novel ‘hatter’s Castle’ while he was from his illness. He became popular with the instant success of his novel. He gave up later the medical profession and adopted writing as a career. He and the Spanish gardener are his notable novels.

The title of this story ‘two gentlemen of Verona’ is taken from an early play by William Shakespeare. The story tells the hardship faced by two sincere and selfless young boys for the treatment of their sister suffering from tuberculosis. It conveys the idea that there is a hope for humanity so long as people are willing to make sacrifices for the well-being of others.

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Science Class 10 NCERT Solutions


In This Section, You Will Find science NCERT Solutions of class 10th. We Provided you All the questions And answers Of Ncert Book. If you found any problem Then Please Contact Us!

Content Of Science Class X – NCERT Solutions

  • Chapter 1:  Chemical Reactions and Equations
  • Chapter 2:  Acids, Bases, and Salts
  • Chapter 3:  Metals and Non-metals
  • Chapter 4:  Carbon and its Compounds
  • Chapter 5:  Periodic Classification of Elements solution
  • Chapter 6:  Life Processes
  • Chapter 7:  Control and Coordination
  • Chapter 8:  How do Organisms Reproduce Science solution
  • Chapter 9:  Heredity and Evolution
  • Chapter 10: Light – Reflection and Refraction
  • Chapter 11: Human Eye and Colourful World
  • Chapter 12: Electricity
  • Chapter 13: Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
  • Chapter 14: Sources of Energy
  • Chapter 15: Our Environment
  • Chapter 16: Management of Natural Resources

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English Literature Reader Class 10th | NCERT Solution, Notes, PDF Download

Here you can find best chapter summaries, inside questions, NCERT solutions for Class 10th Literature Reader English Course through which you can browse very quickly and easily. We have all concepts cleared about all problems in First Flight Chapters and assure you that you would find no problems in your English examinations. We have treasures of different questions for practice extra questions for chapters read in English Literature Reader.

English Literature Reader Content


  • Chapter 7- The Frog and the Nightingale
  • Chapter 8- Mirror
  • Chapter 9- Not Marble nor the Gilded Monuments (Sonnet 55)
  • Chapter 10- Ozymandias
  • Chapter 11- The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
  • Chapter 12- Snake


  • Chapter 13- The Dear Departed
  • Chapter 14- Julius Caesar


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First Flight Class 10th | Ncert Solutions, Notes English, PDF Download

Footprints Wthout Feet Class 10th | NCERT Solution, Notes, PDF Download

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