Short Answer Type Questions of The Rise Of Nationalism in Europe

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SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

Q.1. What views did Giuseppe Mazzini have about Italy?

Ans. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification from above could be the basis of Italian unity.

Q.2. What was the reaction to the Napoleonic Code?

Ans. Initially many people welcomed French armies as harbingers of liberty. But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility, as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies as required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

Q.3. What kind of life did the aristocrats lead?

Ans. Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the European continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, a numerically small group.

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Q.4. What was understood by the term ‘liberalism’?

Ans. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.

Q.5. When and why was the Zollverein formed?

Ans. In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German States. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interests to national unification. A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing at the time.

Q.6. How did the Treaty of Vienna (1815) come into being?

Ans. In 1815, representatives of the European powers — Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria — who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.

Q.7. What was the nature of conservative regimes set up in 1815?

OR

Enumerate any three features of conservative regimes set up in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. [2011 (T-2)]

Ans. The conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent, and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected ideas of liberty and freedom associated with the French revolution.

Q.8. What led to the rise of the revolutionaries?

Ans. During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground. Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries

Q.2. What was the reaction to the Napoleonic Code?

Ans. Initially many people welcomed French armies as harbingers of liberty. But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility, as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies as required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

Q.3. What kind of life did the aristocrats lead?

Ans. Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the European continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, a numerically small group.

Q.4. What was understood by the term ‘liberalism’?

Ans. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.

Q.5. When and why was the Zollverein formed?

Ans. In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German States. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interests to national unification. A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing at the time.

Q.6. How did the Treaty of Vienna (1815) come into being?

Ans. In 1815, representatives of the European powers — Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria — who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.

Q.7. What was the nature of conservative regimes set up in 1815?

OR

Enumerate any three features of conservative regimes set up in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. [2011 (T-2)]

Ans. The conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent, and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected ideas of liberty and freedom associated with the French revolution.

Q.8. What led to the rise of the revolutionaries?

Ans. During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground. Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries

and spread their ideas. To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom. Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.

Q.9. Write briefly about conditions in Europe in the 1870s.

Ans. • By the last quarter of the 19th century, nationalism did not have its idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of the first half of the century.

• Nationalism had become a narrow creed with limited ends.

• Nationalist groups were no longer trusting, nor tolerant of each other.

• They were always at each other’s throats.

• The major European powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject people

in Europe to further their own imperialist aims.

Q.10. What has made the Balkan a source of nationalist tension?

Ans. • The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans.

• The region had geographical and ethnic varieties.

• The Balkans included Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.

• The inhabitants of the Balkan regions were called Slavs.

• Most of the Balkan region was under Ottoman rule.

• The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the

disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.

PREVIOUS YEARS’ QUESTIONS

Q.1. Explain liberalism in political and economic fields prevailing in Europe in the 19th century. [2008]

Ans. Politically, liberalism stood for (i) Constitution; (ii) a representative government ruling by consent; (iii) a parliamentary system and; (iv) ownership of private property; (v) end of the privileges of aristocracy. Drawback over that it did not grant equal rights to men and women, women had to struggle for their political rights.

Economically, liberalism stood for (i) Freedom of markets; (ii) End of state restrictions on movement of goods and capital; (iii) A customs union or Zollverein was formed by Prussia in 1834, which many German states joined (iv) This union reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two and abolished tariff barriers; (v) A network of railways led to great mobility and gave an impetus to national unity. It boosted economic nationalism.

Q.2. How did Romanticism seek to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment during 18th century ? Explain. [2009, 2011(T-2)]

OR

“Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe.” Support the statement with examples. [2010]

Ans. Romanticism criticised glorification of reason and science and focussed instead on emotions,

intuitions and mystical feelings. The poets and romantic artists tried to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of nationalism.

Some Romantics, like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder, tried through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularise the true spirit of the nation. The Polish artist, Karol Kurpinski encouraged National Struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the ‘polonaise’ and ‘mazurka’ into national symbols. Language also played an important role in developing nationalist feelings. The Grimm Brothers promoted German language to oppose French domination through their collection of folk tales. The Polish used language as a weapon against Russian domination.

Q.3. In which year was the unification of Italy completed ? Mention two features of the unification movement. [2011(T-2)]

Ans. Unification of Italy took place in 1860. Despite formidable hurdles which beset the path of unification of Italy, the feeling of liberty, equality and patriotism could not remain suppressed among Italians for a long time. Some patriots, supporters of democracy, writers, philosophers and many secret institutions resolved to launch a combined struggle to achieve liberty and liberalism for Italy.

Q.4. Why were 1830s called the years of great economic hardship in Europe ? Give any three reasons. [2011 (T-2)]

Ans. The 1830’s called the year of great economic hardship in Europe. During the first half of the nineteenth century there was enormous growth of population required good amount of jobs. By the rise of population, unemployment also increased. The job seekers or unemployed people migrated from villages to cities for earning bread. The conditions of towns were also worse because of heavy production and cheap rates products of England (it happened because of industrial revolution of England).

In agriculture, the peasants were suffered because of less agrarian facilities and high inflation. The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread poverty.

Q.5. Explain any three reasons for the nationalist upsurge in the 19th century Europe.

[2011 (T-2)]

Ans. War and territorial expansion definitely helped to create the environment of nationalism but cultural movement gave momentum to this feeling. The glorification of reason and science by the romantic artists and poets create a sense of shared collective heritage a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation. At the same time folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances promoted the spirit of the nation. Vernacular language is one of the important aspects which grows the feeling of nationalism.

Q.6. Explain the role of language in developing the nationalist sentiments in Europe.

[2011 (T-2)]

Ans. At that time most of the people were illiterate. They were able to understand only vernacular regional or simple language. That is why use of the vernacular or regional language easily carry out the modern nationalist message to the large audience easily.

Nationalist sentiment also attached with local language. The message conveyed in vernacular language affect powerfully. Folk lore, folk tales and the activities concerned with vernacular language gave the feeling of nationalism and tied the people by the thread of national love and honour.

Q.7. “Italy had a long history of political fragmentation”. Support the statement by giving any three points. [2011 (T-2)]

Ans. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational Habsburg Empire. During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one state – Sardinia – Piedmont – was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain. Even the Italian language had many regional and local variations.

Q.8. Explain how Ireland got incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801 ? What were the symbols of this new British nation ? [2011 (T-2)]

Ans. The population of Ireland was divided into two categories – Catholics and Protestants. The Britishers helped the Protestants to dominate the large Catholic population. Catholics opposed that suppression under the leadership of Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen but they were failed. At last, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. The symbols of new Britain Kingdom (Nation) was – the British flag, i.e., Union Jack, the national anthem, i.e., God Save the King, and the English language were actively promoted. Finally the Irish people were forced to live as subordinate in their own country.

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