Resources and Development
- Everything available in our earth which can be used to satisfy our needs.
- It is technologically accessible, economically jeasible and culturally acceptable.
Classification Of Resources
On The Basis Of Origin, Resources Are Classified In Two Groups:
- Biotic: The resources which are found in the biosphere and have life example flora and fauna.
- Abiotic: Composed of non living things. Example: Rock, metals.
On The Basis Of Exhaustibility:
- Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduce. Example: water and solar energy.
- Non-Renewable Resources: Those resources which cannot be renewed or replenished easily. Formation takes place million of year. Example: fossil fuels, minerals
On The Basis Of Ownership:
- Individual Resources: Resources and privately by individual. Example: land by farmer.
- Community Owned Resources: Resources which are accessible to all the members of community of playground burial ground.
- National Resources: The resources which belong to a nation easy roadway Railway ocean water 12 nautical miles (22.3 km)
- International Resources: The resources which do not belongs to a particular Nation. Eg: Ocean resources beyond 200 km.
On The Basis Of States Of Development:
- Potential Resources: The resources which are founded in a region but have not been utilized. Eg: Wind and solar energy in Gujarat and Rajasthan.
- Development Resources: The resources which are survey and their quality and quantity are determined. Eg: Tree in forest
- Stock: The resources which have the potential to satisfy the human needs. But human do not have the technology to use them. Eg: Water (hydrogen, oxygen)
- Reserve: The resources which can be put in the use with the help of technology. But they are use has not been started. Eg: Hydro electricity from water.
Sustainable Economic Development:
Development should take place without damaging the environment
First Earth summit-> Rio de Janeiro in 1992
It is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources.
Importance Of Resource Planning In India
- India has great diversity in the availability of resources
- Some region or self-sufficient while some other reasons has a shortage of resources. Eg: Jharkhand mineral resources, Rajasthan- no water resources.
- A balance resource planning is necessary
Resource Planning Ways
- Identification of resources by surveying, mapping, etc
- Making a planning structure with the help of technology
- Matching the resource development plans with National Development plan
- Conservation of resources-importance
- Resources are necessary for any development activity
- Overutilization and irrational consumption may lead to social economic and environmental problem.
- To overcome their problems we should conserve them.
- Land is the most important natural resource. All the economic activity is performed on land.
- It supports natural vegetation and animal live human life.
- It is the finite resources.
Name The Different Relief Features And Their Uses:
- 43%- Plans (For Agriculture industry)
- 30%- mountain (water, tourism, ecology)
- 27%- Plateans (Minerals, Fossil Fuels)
Soil As A Resource
- It is the most important renewable resource.
- Medium of plant growth and supports different living organisms.
Factors That Help In The Formation Of Soil:
Relief, parent rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time. The natural forces like raining, water, temperature, Wind, glaciers, etc also help.
Classification Of Soil:
- It is the widely spread soil in india and the entire northern plain is made up of this soil.
- They are deposited by the three important Himalayan river system i.e Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra
- According to their age alluvial soil is of two types:
* Khadar (Newer Alluvial)
* Bangar (Older Alluvial)
- They are very fertile and contain potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
- Ideal for the cultivation of sugar cane, paddy, wheat, pulses, etc.
- Areas of alluvial soil are intensely cultivated and densely populated.
- Its black in color also known as regur soil.
- This soil is idea for growing cotton, so it is known as black cotton soil.
- coelomates and parent rock are the foctors in the formation of black soil.
- They have the capacity to hold moisture contain lime, potash, etc and poor in phospheric acid contents.
- They develop deep cracks during summers which help in the content of proper aeration of the soil.
- Ideal for tea, coffee, cashews, etc.
- The word ‘Laterite’ is derived from the Latin word ‘later’ means brick.
- It is found in the areas of high temperature and heavy rain fall.
- Humus content is very low because most of the microorganisms like bacteria get destroyed drying summers.
- Ideal for growing tree, coffee and cashew nuts.
- They are of red to brown in colors.
- They re sandy and saline.
- Due to the dry climate and high temperature, the soil lacks of humus and moisture. They are found in the areas like western rajasthan.
- Forest soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas.
- In the snow covered areas of the Himalayas, the soil experiences denudation.
- They are acidic and has low humus content.
The denudation of the soil cover and its washing down is known as soil erosion.
- Human activities that cause soil erosion are deforestation, overgrazing, construction, mining, etc.
- Natural forces like wind, glaciers and water.
Kinds Of Erosion:
- Gully Erosion: Running water cuts through the soil and make deep channels. Soil becomes Uncultivable, known as bad.
- Sheet Erosion: Soil is removed in large areas in the form of sheet.
- Wind Erosion: Soil is removed at the time of heavy wind.
Measures Taken For Soil Conservation:
- Contour Ploughing: Ploughing along the contour lines.
- Terrace Farming: Steps can be cut out on the slopes.
- Strip Cultivation: Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops.
- Shelter Belts: Trees are grown in rows.
- Stabilization of sand lines by planting thorny bushes.