SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (3 MARKS) of Food Security in India Class 9th Social Science Economics




  • What are the essentials  of  food  security  system? Ans. Essentials of Food Security System are the following :
    1. Increasing domestic production of food to meet its growing demand
    2. Food should be available in adequate quantity as well as to meet nutritional  requirements
    3. Food should be available at reasonable  prices
    4. Buffer stock of food should be  maintained

How is food security affected during a natural calamity?

Ans. In the times of any natural calamity, say a drought, total production of foodgrains declines. It creates a shortage of food, particularly in the affected areas. Due to shortage of food, the prices go up in the market. At high prices, poor people may not afford to buy food. If such a calamity occurs in a large area, it may lead to starvation.

  • Why is there need for self-sufficiency in food grains in India? Ans. Need for self-sufficiency  in foodgrains  arises from  the following :
  • to feed  growing population
  • to fight against any natural  calamity
  • to reduce import of foodgrains
  • to control prices of foodgrains

The task of attaining self-sufficiency in foodgrains in future seems to be difficult. Give two reasons in support of this    statement.

Ans.  The task of attaining self-sufficiency in foodgrains in future seems to be difficult in India. It    is  because :

  • There has been a gradual shift from cultivation of food crops to cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oil seeds and crops which act as industrial raw
  • More and more land is being used for construction of factories, residential buildings,

                                                                                                                                                                                         Mention  two  objectives of PDS.                                                                                                                  [Important] Ans. Two  Objectives of  PDS.

  • To provide essential goods at subsidised prices to the
  • To control prices of essential

Why is procurement of foodgrains done in    India?

Ans. The government procures foodgrains at pre-announced prices to provide incentives to farmers for raising the production of crops. The food procured by the government is distributed among the poorer section of the society through fair price shops at subsidised prices.

Mention two reasons behind excessive buffer stocks of foodgrains. Ans. Two  Reasons for Excessive Buffer Stock   :

  • There has been increase in minimum support
  • The offtake of foodgrains under PDS has been

State two consequences of the excess reserves of food grains in India. Ans. Two  Consequences of Excessive Buffer Stock   :

  • It has raised economic costs i.e. cost incurring for procuring, storing and distribution of foodgrains.
  • It has  adversely affected the food grain

 Mention two measures undertaken by the government to reduce the stock of foodgrains. Ans. Measures to Reduce Buffer   Stock.

  • Open sale at prices much below the economic
  • Increase in BPL allocation from 28 kg to 35 kg per month per

What is the Public   Distribution System?                                                     [CBSE 2010] Ans. Public Distribution  System

The Food Corporation of India procures food at pre-announced prices. The state governments distribute foodgrains to poor through ration shops at subsidised prices fixed by the government. This is called the Public Distribution System. There are about 4.6 lakh ration shops all over    the country. Ration shops are also known as fair price shops.

How cooperatives are helpful in   food security?                                        [CBSE 2010] Ans. Role of cooperatives in providing food security    :

In many parts of India, the cooperative societies set up their own cooperatives to supply different items at cheaper rates. Following are the examples :

  • In Tamil Nadu 94% of ration shops are run by
  • In Delhi, the Mother Dairy is supplying milk and milk products like butter, ghee etc. to  the people at much subsidised
  • In Gujarat, Amul is doing the same job of supplying milk and milk products to people at much cheaper

It is being run by cooperatives. It has brought ‘White Revolution’ in India.

Why is food security essential? How food security is affected during disaster?

[CBSE 2010]

Ans. Need of food security : The poorest section of the society might be food-insecure most of the times, while persons above poverty lines might also be food insecure when the country faces national disaster. Due to natural calamity, say drought, total production of foodgrain decreases. It creates a shortage of food in affected areas. Due to shortage of food, the prices go up. At higher prices, some people cannot buy food. So food security is essential.

State  three dimensions of  food security.                                                     [CBSE 2010] Ans. Three dimensions of food security   :

  • Availability of food : There should be enough stocks of food items in the country through good production, through imports or previous year’s stock stored in government
  • Accessibility of food : Food should be within the reach of
  • Affordability of food : The prices of different food articles should be such that every individual is able to buy them. The foodgrain items should be within the reach of the

         Why has Public Distribution System been criticised? Explain any three reasons.

[CBSE 2010]

Ans.   (i)  Market ineffectiveness of PDS : Average  consumption of PDS grain at all India   level   is only 1 kg per person per month. Average consumption figure in the states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh is only 300 gms, while in states like Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil  Nadu this figure is 3-4 kg per person per month. As a result, the poor has to depend on markets rather than ration   shops.

  • With the introduction of three types of cards and three different prices for the same articles to the different people, the whole system of Public Distribution System has become much complicated.
  • PDS dealers malpractices : The ration shop dealers resort to malpractices. They divert the grains to the open market to get a better

What is the difference between chronic and seasonal hunger? Write any two.

[CBSE 2010]

Ans. Chronic Hunger : When diet is inadequate in terms of quantity or quality, it is called chronic hunger. Usually poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of their low income and as      a result their inability to buy food even for their survival. This type of hunger is more or less   of a permanent nature and presents throughout the year.

Seasonal Hunger : Seasonal hunger persists only during a particular period of the season. It    is linked with the cycles of food growing and harvesting. In rural areas, the seasonal hunger     is prevalent because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities. The gap between the sowing season and the reaping season is marked by seasonal hunger.

  • Which are the people more prone to food insecurity? [2011 (T-2)] Ans. The people worst affected by food insecurity in India are landless labourers, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services and destitutes including beggars. In the urban    areas,

the food insecure people are those whose working members are generally employed in ill-paid occuptions and casual labour market. These workers are largely engaged in seasonal activities and are paid very low wages that just ensure bare survival.

         Describe briefly the measures adopted to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains since Independence.  [2011 (T-2)]

Ans. After Independence, Indian policy makers adopted all measures to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains. India adopted a new strategy in agriculture which resulted in Green Revolution especially in the production of wheat and    rice.

What steps have been taken by the Government of India to provide food security to the poor? Explain any three.                                                                                                                [2011 (T-2)]

Ans. To provide food security to the poor following steps have been taken by the Government of India :

  • PDS :- Public Distribution System (PDS) was established for the distribution of food grains among
  • ICDS :-    Integrated  Child  Development  Services  were  launched  in  1975   to  ensure nutrition among children of backward
  • FFW :- ‘Food for work’ was introduced in 1977-78 to provide employment opportunities for poors to ensure food security for

Describe Public Distribution System (PDS) is the most important step taken by the Government of India towards ensuring   food security.                                                                   [2011 (T-2)]

Ans. In the begining, the coverage of PDS was universal with no discrimination between poor and non-poor. Then later on the policy was made more targeted.

Important Features of  PDS


Name of scheme Year of introduction Covrage target group Full name
PDS upto 1992 Universal Public  Distribution System
RPDS 1992 Backward blocks Revamped  Public Distribution
TDPS 1997 Poor and non-poor Targeted  Public Distribution
AAY 2000 Poorest of the  Poor Antyodaya Anna Yojana
APS 2000 Indigent  senior citizen Annapurna Scheme
  • What is buffer stock? Why is it created by the government? [2011 (T-2)] Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the  farmers

in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for  their crops. Buffer stock is created to distribute foodgrains in deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at price lower than the market price. It is also used at a the time of adverse  weather conditions.

         What are famines? Who were the most affected group of devastating famine of Bengal?

[2011 (T-2)]

Ans. A famine is characterised by widespread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by forced use of contaminated water, of decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation. The agricultural labourers, fishermen, transport workers and other casual labourers were affected the   most.

  • Why is buffer stock created by the government? Give any three [2011 (T-2)] Ans. Buffer stock  is created due to following   reasons:-
  • To distribute food grains in deficit
  • To distribute food grains among the poorer strata of society at prices lower than market
  • To resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during the periods of
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