- Define political parties
Ans. 1) Political parties are a group of people which come together to contest elections and hold power in govt.
2.) They agree on certain policies and program and aim for collective good.
2. What are components of a political party?
Ans. The leaders, active members, and followers.
Function of political parties
- Parties contest election elections are fought among candidates put up by political parties types of candidates.
- Party candidate ex. India
- Independent candidate ex. USA.
- Parties put forward policies and programs and voters choose from them- a party reduces a vast multi-trade of opinion into a few basic positions which it supports. A govt. is expected a base its policies on to line taken by reading party.
- Party places a decisive robs in making law for the country. For must be passed in parliament.
- Parties from and run govt.
- Partied recruit leaders train them to make them ministers to run the govt.
- Those parties that loose in the election by the role of opposition parties.
- They express different views and criticize govt. for its failure.
- Parties shape public opinion-
- They raise, highlight issues.
- Parties sometimes start a movement for the resolution the problem of people.
- Parties provide people to access to govt. machinery and welfare scheme implemented by Govt.
Necessity of Political parties-
- If there are no political parties no one will be able to make promises to the people.
- Though govt. can be formed, their ability is uncertain.
- Elected representatives met be responsible for the welfare of the nation.
How many parties should we have?
- More than 750 parties are requested by election commission of India.
- Usually, only a handful of parties are effective in the race to win elections and form the govt.
Different parties system
- A) One party system- In some countries only one party is allowed to control and run govt. ex. China.
- B) It is not a democratic opinion. Any democratic system allows at least 2 parties to compete in election.
- II) A) Two party system- In some countries power usually changes between main parties.
- B) Though several parties exist only 2 main parties have the chance of winning a majority of seats. Ex. America, U.S.A.
III) A) Multiple party system- Many parties compete for power and more than 2 parties have a chance of coming to power.
- B) In the system govt. is formed by various parties coming together in a collection.
- C) When several parties in a multi-party system join hand for the purpose of contesting elections and using parties. It is called alliance or a front. For ex. National Democratic Alliance united progressive alliance and left the front.
- D) The multi-party system often leads to political instability.
- E) This system allows a variety of interest and opinions to enjoy political representation.
- Party system evolves over a long time, depending on the nature of society, its social and geographical diversity in such a large country is not easily absorbed by 2 or even 3 parties.
National Political Parties
- Democracy that follow a federal system all over the world have 2 kind of political parties.
- Parties that present in only one of federal units.
- Parties that are present in several or all units of the federation.
- National Parties- It is a country-wide party which units in the various state. All the units follow same policies and program.
- State Parties- They are registered by the election commission. All the parties are treated equally by E.C. symbol are load by EC.
- What is meant by recognized political parties?
Ans. i) The political parties that are recognized by E.C. These parties are given unique symbols.
ii)Parties that enjoy these privileged and special privileges are called political recognized party.
State parties A party that gets at least 6% of the total votes in an election to legislative assembly and aims at least 2 seats.
National parties a party that gets at least 6% of that votes in an election to lok sabha and wins at least 4 seats.
Indian National Congress-
- It is the oldest party founded in 1885 and has experienced many splits.
- Under Jawaharlal Nehru, the party will to build a modern secular democratic responsibility in India.
- It was ruling party till 1977 and then found 1980 to 1989.
- It believes in secularism and welfare of weaker section and memories.
- It supports new economic reforms with a human face.
Bharatiya Janta Party-
- It was founded in 1980 by receiving the erstwhile Bharatiya jana sangh.
- Drawaing Inspiration from India’s culture and values.
- Cultural nationalism (or Hindustrea) is an important element in its conception of Indian nationhood and politics.
- It wants full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India a uniform civil code for all people living in country irrespective of religion and ban on religious comorsion.
- It has support throughout India come to power in 1988 as head of NDA(National Democratic Alliance)
Bahujan Samaj Party
- It was formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram
- It seeks to represent and secure power for Bahujan Samaj which include the dalits, odinasis, OBC and religious minority.
- Oraws inspiration from the Ideas and teaching of sahu maharaj, mahatma phale, periyar ramaswami naiker and Bhabasaheb ambedkar.
- Stands for security interest and welfare of Dalits and oppression people.
Communist party of India-
- Formed in 1925 believes un Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy opposed to the forces of secessionism and communalism.
- It splits into 2 in1964 and which lead to the formation of CPI(n).
National Congress Party-
- Formed in 1999 following a split in the congress party.
- Espouses democracy, Gandhian soculorism equity, social justice ad federalism wants that high office in govt. be confined to internal born citizens of the country.
Challenges of political parties
- Importance of state parties?
Ans. 1) The No. And strength of state parties made the parliament of India more desire.
2)Since no national parties are able to form govt. at the center, they are formed to make alliances with state parties.
3) This enables the state parties to be the part of central govt.
4) This has strengthened democracy and federalism in India.
- Challenges to political parties?
Ans. 1) Look of internal democracy within the party- Power is concentrated in the hands of few people. Parties do not keep member ship register, do nothold organized meetings, do not conduct internal elections so an ordinary worker do not get sufficient information of the happening inside the party.
2) Dynastic succession- In many parties, the top position are always controlled by members of one family. It is impossible for an ordinary worker to rise to the top of a party.
3) Growing role of money and muscle power- In election, parties nominate the candidate who can raise money. In some cases parties nominal criminals to win election.
4) Parties do not offer a meaningful choice to vote. In recent years there has been a decline in the ideological difference in parties. Ex. Labour parties and the Conservative party in Britain is very little. They agree on more fundamental aspect but differ only in details on how policies are to be formed and implemented.
How can parties be reformed-
- Effects to reform political partied and leader?
Ans. 1) Constitution was amended to prevent election M.P.s and M.A.s from changing parties. This is known as Anti-defection. If anybody does say he/she will lose sent in the legislature.
2) It is mandatory for every candidate who contests election to file an efficient giving details of his property, criminal cases pending against him/her.
3) The E.C. passed an order making at necessary for political parties to hold organisation election and to full income tax returns.
2. Suggestion to reform political parties and leaders?
Ans. 1) A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties. They should maintain member ship register to follow its own constitution.
2) 1/3 seats must be reserved for women.
3) There should be state funding of election.
2. other ways in which parties can be reformed?
Ans. 1) People can put pressure on political parties this can be done through politicians, publicity, and organization. Ordinary citizens, pressure groups and movement and media can play an important role in this If political parties feel they would lose public support by not taking up reforms, they would become more serious about reforms.
2) Political parties can improve if those wants this join political parties quantity of democracy depends on degree of public participation.