Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10th Notes
A) Explain the movements for democracy in Nepal?
- Nepal became a democracy in 1990. Although the king was the head of state. The real power was with elected representatives.
- King Birendra, who has accepted this transition from absolute monarchy, was killed in the mysterious massacre of a royal family in 2001 and his brother Gyanendra, the new king was not really to accept democracy.
- He dismissed the prime minister and dissolved the parliament.
- A popular movement started in Nepal in April 2006 to restore democracy.
SHORT NOTE ON S.P.A. (SEVEN PARTY ALLIANCE)
- All major political parties in the parliament formed seven party alliances and called for a 4 days strike.
- Later Maoists and other organizations joined them and people took to the streets and it was difficult for the king to suppress the movement.
- The number of protesters reached between 3-5 lacks on 21 April and they served an ultimatum to the king. The leader of the movement rejected the half-hearted concession made by the king.
- They demanded for restoration of democracy power to an all party government and a new constitution assembly.
- On 24 April 2006, the day of ultimatum, the king was forced to accept the demand.
- P.A. elected Girija Prasad Corola as the new Prime Minister and most of king powers were taken away.
- This movement came to be known as Nepal’s second movement for democracy.
BOLIVIA WATER WAR
- Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America.
- World Bank pressurized the government to give up the control of water supply. So, the government to sell the rights of water supply to M.N.C.
- As soon as they get the right of water supply, they increased the price of water by four times.
- This bought troubles in lives of common people and led to a popular protest.
- In January 2000, an alliance of labour human rights organizations called for a four day strike in city. Hence, the government agreed to negotiate but nothing happened.
- The ogiation was started again in February and April, but the government tried to suppress the movement.
- But the power of people forced the M.N.C. to flee the city and made the government to accept all the demands.
- The contract with M.N.C. was cancelled and water supply was restored to Municipality.
DEMOCRACY AND POPULAR STRUGGLES
A) What are differences between Bolivia and Nepal?
- The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy but movement in Bolivia was against the policy of an elected democratic government.
- The popular struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy while the struggle in Nepal was about the foundation of country’s politics.
B) What are similarities between Bolivia and Nepal?
- Both of these are instances of political conflicts that led to popular struggles.
- In both cases, the struggle involved mass mobilization.
- Public demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute.
- Democracy evolves through popular struggles.
- Democracy involves conflict between those who are in power and those who aspires for power.
- Democratic conflicts are resolved through mass mobilization.
- If the conflicts cannot be resolved by parliament the solution will come from people.
- These conflicts and mobilization are based on new political organization.
MOBILISATION AND ORGANISATION
The protest was joined by Nepalese communist party (Maoist) which did not believe parliamentary democracy. This party was involved in an armed struggle against Nepali government.
A) What is meant by FEDECOR?
- The protest against water privatization in Bolivia was not led by political party it was led by an organization FEDECOR.
- This organization comprised local professional such as engineer and environmentalist, farmer, student and even street children.
- This movement was supported by socialist party that came up in power in 2006.
ROLE PLAYED BY ORGANISATIONS
- By direct participation-: In competitive politics, this is done by creating political parties, contesting elections and forming government.
- By indirect participation-: By which people get government to listen to their demand. They could do so by forming organization (These are called Interest groups/Pressure groups).
PRESSURE GROUPS AND MOVEMENTS
A) Pressure Groups-:
- Pressure groups are the organization that tries to influence government policies.
- They do not aim to control or share political power.
- People with common occupation, interest, aspiration come together to achieve their common objective. E.g. Narmada Bachao Andolan, Anti-Liquor movement.
- They also try to influence government policies rather than directly taking part in the electoral competition.
- They have a loose organization.
- Their decision making is more flexible and informal pressure groups & movements.
SECTIONAL INTEREST GROUPS & PUBLIC INTEREST GROUPS
- Public Interest Group tries to promote collective rather than selective goods.
- They help the groups either than their groups. E.g. a group fighting against bonded labor fight not for itself but for those who are suffering under such bondage. E.g. BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Employee Federation).
- BAMCEF is an organization largely made up of government employees & camping against caste discrimination. Its principle concern is with social justice and social equality for entire society.
1) ISSUE SPECIFIC & GENERAL MOVEMENT
- Issue specific and general movement tries to achieve a single objective within a limited time. E.g. Nepalese Movement.
- General/Generic movement tries to achieve a broad goal in a long time. E.g. Environmental movements.
- In India Narmada Bachao Andolan is a good example of issue specific and general movements. It started with specific issue of the people displaced by creation of Sardar Sarovar Dam on Narmada River. Its objective was to stop dam from being constructed gradually it becomes a wider movement that questioned all such big dam. Movements of this kind tend to have a clear leadership and some organizations.
- Environmental movements & Women’s movements example of long term movements. In such movements no single organization that control or guides such movements.
- Sometime the broad movements have a loose umbrella organization as well. E.g. The National Alliance of people’s Movements in an organization of organizations.
A) How do pressure groups and movements influence politics?
- Pressure groups try to get public support and sympathy for their activities by carrying out information campaigns, organizing meetings & filling politicians. They try to influence the media for their cause.
- They often organize protest activity like strikes or disrupting government programs.
- Business groups often employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisement.
B) What are the relationship political parties and pressure groups?
- The pressure groups are formed or led by leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. E.g. Student union.
- Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. E.g. When Assam movement led by the students against foreigners came to an end, it led to formation of Assam Gana Parishad. The roots of parties like DMK, AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be forced to a long drawn social reform movement during 1930s and 1940s.
- Most of the cases relationship between parties and interest groups is not so direct. They often take positions that are opposed to each other.
- Most of the new leadership of political parties comes from Movement Interest Groups.
C) Difference between political parties & pressure groups.
- Political parties have to face people in election.
- But pressure groups do not.
- Pressure groups are not accountable to people but the political parties are accountable to people.
- Pressure group may not get funds and support from people but political parties get fund and support from people.
- Pressure groups with lot of money hijack public decision in favor of them.
D) Importance of movement and pressure group.
- Pressure groups and movement have deepened democracy.
- Putting pressure on rulers is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy.
- Pressure groups remind the government of the needs & concerns of ordinary citizens.
- When one sectional interest group brings pressure on the government to make policies in its favor, another will make counter-pressure not to make policies in favor of first group.
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